Ark Recordings

Ark Recordings

Ark Recordings
Founded 2005
Distributor(s) PIAS Entertainment Group
Genre Indie
Country of origin UK
Official Website http://www.arkrecordings.com/

Ark Recordings is a London based independent record label run by Jamie Davis (of Transcopic Records) and Russell Warby (VP of WME Agency UK, Music Power 1001).

The label was launched in 2005 after Transcopic Records went on a hiatus and Davis joined forces with Warby to create a cross-atlantic signings imprint. It has since had releases by UK and international acts including Jamaican reggae artist Little Roy, New York based Alberta Cross, Turbo Fruits (feat. Be Your Own Pet's Jonas Stein), Josephine, Sparkadia, Tacks The Boy Disaster, Magic Wands and Liverpool's The 747s.

Releases like Josphine's ‘A Freak A' and Little Roy's Nirvana cover of ‘Sliver' have enjoyed extensive UK Radio coverage and press and online coverage. The label has also had mentions on BBC Radio 2 and BBC 6 Music by Steve Lamacq and Nemone.


ARK001 - The 747s : Equilibrium / Set Me Free, 7"/CD/DL single (2006)
ARK002 - The 747s : Night & Day, 7"/CD/DL single (2006)
ARK003 - The 747s : Zampano, CD/ DL Album (2006)
ARK004 - The 747s : Death Of A Star, 7"/CD/DL single (2006)
ARK005 - The 747s : Rainkiss, DL single (2006)
ARK006 - Turbo Fruits : Turbo Fruits, CD/DL Album (2007)
ARK007 - Turbo Fruits : Volcano, 7" Ltd Edition/DL single (2007)
ARK008 - Tacks, The Boy Disaster : Oh, Beatrice EP, CD/DL Mini-Album (2007)
ARK009 - Sparkadia : Animals, DL single (2007)
ARK010 - Sparkadia : Too Much To Do, DL single (2008)
ARK011 - Sparkadia : Postcards, CD/DL Album (2008)
ARK012 - Magic Wands : Teenage Love, DL single (2008)
ARK013 - Magic Wands : Black Magic, 7"/DL single (2008)
ARK014 - Sparkadia : Morning Light, DL single (2008)
ARK015 - Alberta Cross : Thief and the Heartbreaker EP, CD/DL Mini-Album (2008)
ARK016 - Alberta Cross : Broken Side Of Time, CD/LP/DL Album (2009)
ARK017 - Alberta Cross : ATX, DL single (2009)
ARK018 - Turbo Fruits : Echo Kid, CD/DL Album (2009)
ARK020 - Turbo Fruits : Get Up Get On Down EP, CD/DL (2010)
ARK021 - Josephine : I Think It Was Love Digital EP, DL (2010)
ARK022 - Josephine : A Freak A EP, DL (2010)
ARK023 - Little Roy : Sliver/Dive, 7"/DL (2011)

Current Artists

Alberta Cross
Little Roy
Turbo Fruits
Tacks, The Boy Disaster


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ark_Recordings

Cody Floatplane

Cody Floatplane

Role Floatplane
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Samuel Franklin Cody
Designed by Samuel Franklin Cody
First flight July 1913
Status Prototype only
Number built 1

The Cody Floatplane (also referred to as the Cody Hydro-biplane) was designed and built by Samuel Franklin Cody as an entrant in the 1913 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain race, which offered a prize of £5,000. On 7 August 1913 the aircraft suffered a structural failure during flight trials and both Cody and his passenger were killed.

Design and development

The Cody Floatplane was a three-bay biplane of orthodox design for an aircraft of its time, with a single elevator operated by a bamboo push-rod mounted on booms in front of the wing and a single rudder and small horizontal stabiliser on booms behind it. Lateral control was effected by wing-warping. Power was provided by a 100 hp (75 kW) Green engine mounted on the wing centre section driving a 10.75 ft (3.28 m) diameter Garuda propeller via a chain. Pilot and passenger were seated in tandem in front of the wing, using Cody's preferred metal seats, of the type used on agricultural machinery. The arrangement of the controls was unconventional by present-day standards: all the control surfaces were operated by a control column and wheel, and the throttle and engine ignition were controlled using foot pedals. It was fitted with one large central float with no fewer than three steps and a pair of smaller stabilising floats positioned below the inboard interplane struts.

The machine was completed in July 1913, and made its maiden flight as a landplane on 14 July 1913. It was fitted with its floats and carried out flotation tests on the Basingstoke Canal at Mytchett on 30 July. The floats were then removed and replaced again by skids and wheels for more flight trials. Early on the morning of 7 August Cody carried out a 70 mile (113 km) test flight, with the plan of flying down to Calshot, Southampton, where the aircraft would be fitted with its floats to carry out test flights from water. He agreed, however, to give a flight to the Hampshire cricketer William Evans and took off at 10:30 am with Evans as a passenger. After about eight minutes the aircraft broke up in the air at a height of about 200 ft (60 m) with Cody and Evans, who were not strapped in, being thrown out of the aircraft. Both were killed. The Royal Aero Club accident investigation concluded that the accident was due to "inherent structural weakness", and suggested that Cody and Evans may have survived the crash if strapped in.


General characteristics



Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cody_Floatplane

Khamis Muammar Qadhafi

Khamis al-Gaddafi

Khamis al-Gaddafi
خميس القذافي

Born 27 May 1983
Tripoli, Libya
Nationality Libyan
Relations Muammar Gaddafi (father)
Alma mater Frunze Military Academy (Moscow)
Religion Islam

Khamis al-Gaddafi (Arabic: خميس القذافي‎; 27 May 1983), the seventh and youngest son of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, is a military commander, who is in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan army. During the 2011 Libyan civil war, some sources claimed that Khamis had died, but others continue to refer to it as a rumour. The pro-Gaddafi side have denied the reports, and released what they claimed was live footage of Khamis to the Libyan state television.

Education and career

At the age of three, Khamis was injured in the 15 April 1986 United States bombing of Libya, suffering head injuries when the Bab al-Azizia military compound was attacked in retaliation for the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing. He graduated from the military academy in Tripoli, receiving a bachelor’s degree in military arts and science, further graduating from the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow and the Academy of the General Staff Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From April 2010 he studied for a masters degree at the IE Business School (formerly known as Instituto de Empresa), in Madrid. However, he was expelled by the institution in March 2011 for "his links to the attacks against the Libyan population".

In 2008 Khamis visited Algeria, where he was received by president Abdelaziz Bouteflika. He is the commander of the Khamis Brigade, a special forces brigade of the Libyan military, loyal to Muammar Gaddafi.

In 2010 Khamis was an intern at AECOM Technology Corporation.

Reported death

On 20 March 2011, it was reported by the anti-Gaddafi that Khamis al-Gaddafi had died from his injuries sustained when pilot Muhammad Mokhtar Osman allegedly crashed his plane into Bab al-Azizia a week earlier. The crashing of the plane itself had also not been previously reported or confirmed by any other independent media except Al Manara and the Algerian Shuruk newspaper, which is closely connected to Al Manara, and with it there is a possibility of the reports being part of the propaganda operations by the opposition. Khamis has yet to be seen or heard from since the reported suicide plane crash. U.S. Secretary Hillary Clinton stated that she was aware of reports that one of Gaddafi's sons had been killed in non-coalition air strikes, after hearing them from "many different sources", but that the "evidence is not sufficient" for her to confirm this.

The pro-Gaddafi Libyan government has denied that he was killed.

Both ABC News and Al Arabiya television have cited the unconfirmed reports of Khamis Gaddafi's death in their articles. On 25 March 2011, Al Arabiya television reported that a source now had confirmed the death of Khamis Gaddafi, but Al Jazeera continues to call it a rumour.

On 29 March, the Libyan government showed footage of what it said was live footage of Khamis Gaddafi greeting supporters in Tripoli, in an attempt to refute the claims, though it has used false live images before.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khamis_al-Gaddafi

Khalifa Hifter

Khalifa Belqasim Haftar

Khalifa Belqasim Haftar
Allegiance Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
(until 1987)
Libya Libyan Republic (2011-)
Service/branch Army
Rank Colonel
Battles/wars Chadian–Libyan conflict
2011 Libyan civil war
*Battle of Ajdabiya
*Third Battle of Brega

Khalifa Belqasim Haftar (sometimes spelled Hifter, Hefter or Huftur) is a senior military officer in Libya. Formerly one of Muammar Gaddafi's army commanders in the Chadian–Libyan conflict, he fell out with the regime when Libya lost the war, and sought exile in the United States. In 2011 he returned to Libya to support the uprising. On March 24, 2011, it was announced that he would be taking command of the rebel army.

Some sources have reported ties with the US Central Intelligence Agency. After falling out with the Gaddafi regime, Haftar set up his own militia financed by the CIA, according to the 2001 book Manipulations africaines, published by Le Monde diplomatique. After entering the United States in the 1990s, Haftar took up residence in Vienna, Virginia, five miles outside of Langley, Virginia.


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalifa_Belqasim_Haftar

Damon Vickers & Company

Damon Vickers

Damon Vickers
Born 1964
New York City
Occupation investor, author, radio host
Nationality United States
Genres finances
Notable work(s) The Day After the Dollar Crashes


Damon Vickers is a Seattle-based investor. He is also a periodic commentator on investments and social and economic trends in the general and financial press, maintains an investment-oriented channel on YouTube, and is the author of the New York Times business best-seller, The Day After the Dollar Crashes.

Early life

Damon Vickers was born in 1964 in New York City, and grew up in Kew Gardens, Queens, New Haven, and later in Sonoma County. After his parent's divorce, Vickers went to live with his father, who had been a floor trader for Goldman Sachs.

Damon’s father eventually discovered the teachings of Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche and the Nyingma Institute, and the pair moved to Northern California to help build the newly-founded Odiyan Monastery. Vickers spent several years living at the monastery, where he was jointly influenced by the “extremely liberal” influence of his father and the disciplined regimen of the monastery, as well as rigorous training in meditation. At the age of 13, Damon was initiated by Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche in the Nyingma lineage, and participated in the Black Crown Ceremony with Karmapa.

Early career

At the age of 18 Vickers became a top synthesizer salesman at Manny’s Music in New York, where he sold equipment to individuals such as Will Smith, Pauly Shore, Russell Simmons, Annie Lenox, George Benson, and Iggy Pop, among others.

Business career

Currently, Vickers periodically reports on companies and trends he finds interesting in both a daily commentary blog and his Twitter page.

Radio host

From 2001 to 2004 Damon Vickers was the host of The Damon Vickers Show, a nationally syndicated five-day-a-week financial radio program that broadcast from Seattle and Tampa. Prior to his own show he was a periodic guest on the Business Talk Radio network, Bill Bresnan, and The Dolans.

Media presence

Vickers has been a guest on CNBC, Bloomberg, and Fox Business News. He has been cited or quoted in The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and other financial and general-interest publications.

The Day After the Dollar Crashes

His 2011 book The Day After the Dollar Crashes appeared on The New York Times business best-seller list, and reached number 5 among business books at Amazon.com. Martin D. Weiss called the book "A must read," with Michael W. Covel commenting “Damon Vickers wants you prepared for an unpredictable future. Are you? If not, time to wake up.”

Family history

Much of Damon Vickers' family were involved in business, investment, and finance. His father, John Vickers, was a floor trader for Goldman Sachs and Salomon Brothers. His grandfather Jack Vickers worked for Kidder Peabody and was a broker during the crash of 1929. Damon’s great grandmother, Katharine Angell, cofounded the Culinary Institute of America, and his great grandfather, James Rowland Angell, was head of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1920 and president of Yale University between 1921 and 1937.


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damon_Vickers


Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase

acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
EC number
CAS number 9029-97-4
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

The final step of beta oxidation is the cleavage of by the thiol group of another molecule of CoA. This reaction is catalyzed by Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase (or Β-ketothiolase). The thiol is inserted between C-2 and C-3, which yields an acetyl CoA molecule and an acyl CoA molecule, which is two carbons shorter.

Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase belongs to the thiolase family of enzymes.


Human genes that encode acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferases include:

acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 (peroxisomal)
Symbol ACAA1
Entrez 30
OMIM 604054
RefSeq NM_001607
UniProt P09110
Other data
EC number
Locus Chr. 3 p23-p22
acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial)
Symbol ACAA2
Entrez 10449
OMIM 604770
RefSeq NM_006111
UniProt P42765
Other data
EC number
Locus Chr. 18 q21
hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit
Symbol HADHB
Entrez 3032
HUGO 4803
OMIM 143450
RefSeq NM_000183
UniProt P55084
Other data
EC number
Locus Chr. 2 p23

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetyl-CoA_C-acyltransferase

Joshua Mosley

Joshua Mosley

Joshua Mosley (born 1974 in Dallas, Texas) is an American artist and animator. He is Associate Professor of Fine Arts in the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. His work is represented by Donald Young Gallery in Chicago. He is the recipient of the 2007 Joseph H. Hazen Rome Prize in Visual Arts and the 2005 Pew Fellowship in the Arts.



External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Mosley

Akintola Williams

Akintola Williams

Akintola Williams
Born 9 August 1919
Lagos, Nigeria(age 91)
Nationality Nigerian
Occupation Accountant
Known for First President of ICAN

Akintola Williams (born 9 August 1919) was the first African to qualify as a chartered accountant. His firm, founded in 1952, later grew organically and through mergers to become the largest professional services firm in Nigeria by 2004. Williams participated in founding the Nigerian Stock Exchange and the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria. During a long career, Williams received many honors.

Birth and education

Akintola Williams was born in 1919. His grandfather Z.A. Williams was a merchant prince from Abeokuta and his father Thomas Ekundayo Williams was a clerk in the colonial service who set up a legal practice in Lagos after training in London, England. He was the older brother of Rotimi Williams, who later became a distinguished lawyer. Williams attended the CMS Grammar School, Lagos. He went on to Yaba Higher College on a UAC scholarship, obtaining a diploma in commerce. In 1944 he traveled to England where he studied at the University of London, majoring in banking and finance and graduating in 1946 with a Bachelor of Commerce. He continued his studies and qualified as a chartered accountant in England in 1949. While in London, he was one of the founders of the Egbe Omo Oduduwa society, with Dr. Oni Akerele as President and Obafemi Awolowo as Secretary.

Accounting career

After returning to Nigeria in 1950, Williams served with the Inland Revenue as an assessment officer until March 1952, when he left the civil service and founded Akintola Williams & Co in Lagos. The company was the first indigenous chartered accounting firm in Africa. At the time, the accountancy business was dominated by five large foreign firms. Although there were a few small local firms, they were certified rather than chartered accountants. Williams gained business from indigenous companies including Nnamdi Azikiwe's West African Pilot, K.O. Mbadiwe's African Insurance Company, Fawehinmi Furniture and Ojukwu Transport. He also provided services to the new state-owned corporations including the Electricity Corporation of Nigeria, the Western Nigeria Development Corporation, the Eastern Nigeria Development Corporation, the Nigerian Railway Corporation and the Nigerian Ports Authority.

The first partner in the firm, Charles S. Sankey, was appointed in 1957, followed by the Cameroonian Mr. Njoh Litumbe. Litumbe opened branch offices in Port Harcourt and Enugu, and later spearheaded overseas expansion. In 1964 a branch was opened in the Cameroons, followed by branches in Ivory Coast and Swaziland and affiliates in Ghana, Egypt and Kenya. By March 1992 the company had 19 partners and 535 staff.

Demand grew as a result of the Companies Act of 1968, which required that companies operating in Nigeria formed locally incorporated subsidiaries and published audited annual accounts. The drive in the early 1970 to encourage indigenous ownership of businesses also increased demand. In 1973 AW Consultant Ltd, a management consultancy headed by Chief Arthur Mbanefo, was spun off. The company acquired a computer service company and a secretarial service, and in 1977 the company entered into an agreemment with Touche Ross International based on profit sharing. Williams was also a board member and major shareholder in a number of other companies. He retired in 1983.

Between April 1999 and May 2004, Akintola Williams & Co merged with two other accounting firms to create Akintola Williams Deloitte, the largest professional services firm in Nigeria with a staff of over 600.

Public roles and honors

Williams playing a leading role in establishing the Association of Accountants in Nigeria (AAN) in 1960 with the goal of training accountants. He was the first President of the association. He was founding member and first president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN). He was also involved in establishing the Nigerian Stock Exchange. He remained actively involved with these organizations into his old age. At a stock exchange ceremony in May 2011 he called on operators to protect the market and ensure there was no scandal. He said that, if needed, market operators should not hesitate to seek his advice on resolving any problem.

Public sector positions include Chairman of the Federal Income Tax Appeal Commissioners (1958–1968), member of the Coker Commission of Inquiry into the Statutory Corporations of the former Western Region of Nigeria (1962), member of the board of Trustees of the Commonwealth Foundation (1966–1975), Chairman of the Lagos State Government Revenue Collection Panel (1973) and Chairman of the Public Service Review Panel to correct the anomalies in the Udoji Salary Review Commission (1975). Other positions include President of the Metropolitan Club in Victoria Island, Lagos, Founder and Council member of the Nigerian Conservation Foundation and Founder and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the .

In 1982 Williams was honored by the Nigerian Government with the Order of the Federal Republic (OFR). Following retirement in 1983, Williams threw himself into a project to establish a music center and concert hall for the Music Society of Nigeria. In April 1997 Queen Elizabeth II awarded him title of Commander of the British Empire (CBE). His CBE was awarded for services to the accountancy profession and for promotion of arts, culture and music through the Musical Society of Nigeria. The Akintola Williams Arboretum at the Nigerian Conservation Foundation headquarters in Lagos is named in his honor. On 8 May 2011 the Nigeria-Britain Association presented awards to John Kufour, past President of Ghana, and to Akintola Williams, with awards for their contributions to democracy and development in Africa.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akintola_Williams

Fort Trial Christian Church

Fort Trial Christian Church

Fort Trial Christian Church Established in 1928 as a prayer meeting, Fort Trial Christian Church soon boomed into what is a thriving church in the Bassett/Collinsville area of Henry County, Virginia. The first church building was erected in 1932 in the general area of the historic site of the revolutionary "Fort Trial," which was built by the commissioning of President George Washington. A new facility was built in the 1960's not far up the highway from the original. Today the church is active in the community in more ways than one.




External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Trial_Christian_Church

Associação Desportiva Vila das Palmeiras

Associação Desportiva Guarulhos

Full name Associação Desportiva Guarulhos
Nickname(s) Índio Guaru
Founded January 1, 1964
Ground , Guarujá, São Paulo state, Brazil
(Capacity: 15,000)
Home colours
Away colours

Associação Desportiva Guarulhos, commonly known as Guarulhos, is a Brazilian football club based in Guarulhos, São Paulo state. The club was formerly known as Associação Desportiva Vila das Palmeiras.


The club was founded on January 1, 1964, as Associação Desportiva Vila das Palmeiras. They professionalized their football department in 1981, and adopted the name Associação Desportiva Guarulhos in 1994.



Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Associa%C3%A7%C3%A3o_Desportiva_Guarulhos

Kevin Rueda

Kevin Rueda

Kevin Rueda
Personal information
Place of birth United States
Height 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)
Playing position Goalkeeper
Youth career
1987-1991 Santa Clara Broncos
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1992-1993 Carcassonne
1996-1998 California Jaguars
1997 New England Revolution (loan) 0 (0)
1998 San Francisco Bay Seals
1998 Los Angeles Galaxy (loan) 0 (0)
1999-2000 San Diego Flash 17 (0)
2000 Rochester Rhinos 1 (0)
2001 Atlanta Silverbacks
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (Goals).

Kevin Rueda is a retired American soccer goalkeeper who played professionally in the USISL and USL A-League.


Rueda attended the Santa Clara University, playing on the men's soccer team from 1987 to 1991. In 1991, the Broncos fell to the Virginia Cavaliers in the NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship.


During 1992-1993, Rueda played for Carcassonne in the Championnat de France amateur 2. In 1996, he signed with the California Jaguars of the USISL. That season, Rueda and his teammates won the championship. In July 1997, the New England Revolution called up Rueda as a standby goalkeeper. That year, Rueda was the USISL Western Conference All Star goalkeeper. In February 1, 1998, the San Jose Clash selected Rueda in the second round (fifteenth overall) of the 1998 MLS Supplemental Draft. On April 2, 1998, the Clash waived him during the pre-season. Rueda returned to the Jaguars but moved to the San Francisco Bay Seals in June. In July 1998, the Seals loaned Rueda to the Los Angeles Galaxy. In February 1998, the Seals traded Rueda to the San Diego Flash for the Flash’s second round draft pick. He played seventeen games in 1999, but was relegated to backup in 2000. In June 2000, the Flash traded Rueda to the Rochester Rhinos in exchange for the Rhinos’ 2001 draft picks. Rueda played one game. In 2001, he played for the Atlanta Silverbacks.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Rueda

German E-Coli outbreak

2011 German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak

2011 German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak
Classification and external resources

Schistocytes seen in a person with hemolytic-uremic syndrome

An Escherichia coli O104:H4 bacterial outbreak began in Germany in May 2011. Certain strains of E. coli are a major cause of foodborne illness. The outbreak started when several people in Germany were infected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) bacteria, leading to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a medical emergency that requires urgent treatment.

The agriculture minister of Lower Saxony identified an organic farm in Bienenbüttel, Lower Saxony, Germany, which produces a variety of sprouted foods, as the likely source of the E. coli outbreak. The farm has since been shut down. Although the laboratories in Lower Saxony did not detect the bacterium in produce from the farm, it was later announced that a laboratory in North Rhine-Westphalia had found the deadly strain in a discarded package of sprouts from the suspected farm. A control investigation confirmed the farm as the source of the outbreak. While the threat of EHEC still exists, the number of new cases has been plunging.

In addition to Germany, where 3,792 cases and 42 deaths had been reported as of 22 June, a handful of cases have been reported in several countries including Switzerland, Poland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, the UK, Canada and the USA. Essentially all affected people had been in Germany shortly before becoming ill.

Initially German officials gave erroneous information of the origin and strain of Escherichia coli. German health authorities, without results of ongoing tests, linked serotype O104 to cucumbers imported from Spain. Later, they recognised that Spanish greenhouses were not the source of E. coli and cucumber samples did not show the specific E. coli variant seen in the outbreak. Spain consequently expressed anger about having its produce linked with the deadly E. coli outbreak, which cost Spanish exporters 200m USD per week. Russia banned the import of all fresh vegetables from the European Union until June 22.


Since 2 May 2011, German health authorities have reported an outbreak in Germany of a severe illness called hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). On 22 May 2011, German health authorities said “Clearly, we are faced with an unusual situation”, one day after the first death in Germany. Escherichia coli infection occurs regularly, infecting 800 to 1200 people a year in Germany, but is usually mild. Until 25 May it occurred in northwest Germany mostly.

On 26 May 2011, German health officials announced that cucumbers from Spain were identified as a source of the E. coli outbreak in Germany. On 27 May 2011, German officials issued an alert distributed to nearby countries, identifying organic cucumbers from Spain and withdrawing them from the market. The European Commission on 27 May said that two Spanish greenhouses that were suspected to be sources had been closed, and were being investigated. The investigation included analyzing soil and water samples from the greenhouses in question, located in the Andalusia region, with results expected by 1 June. Cucumber samples from the Andalusian greenhouses did not show E. coli contamination, but a cross-contamination during transport in Germany or distribution in Hamburg are not discounted; in fact, the most probable cause is cross-contamination inside Germany. The Robert Koch Institute advises against eating raw tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuces in Germany to prevent further cases.

On 31 May 2011, an EU official said that the transport chain was so long that the cucumbers from Spain could have been contaminated at any point that occurred along the transit route. Spanish officials, said before that there was no proof that the outbreak originated in Spain; Spanish Secretary of State for European Affairs Diego López Garrido said that "you can't attribute the origin of this sickness to Spain."

On Tuesday 31 May, lab tests showed that two of the four cucumbers examined did contain toxin-producing E. coli strains, most likely because of cross-contamination in Germany according to experts, but not the O104 strain that was found in patients. The bacteria in the other two cucumbers have not yet been identified.

Genomic sequencing by BGI Shenzhen confirm a 2001 finding that the O104:H4 serotype has some enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC or EAggEC) properties, presumably acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

The only previous documented case of EHEC O104:H4 was in South Korea in 2005 and researchers pointed at contaminated hamburgers as a possible cause.

On June 4, German and EU officials had allegedly been examining data that indicated that a open catering event at a restaurant in Lübeck, Germany, was a possible starting point of the on-going deadly E. coli outbreak in Europe. German hospitals were nearly overwhelmed by the number of E. coli victims.

A spokesman for the agriculture ministry in Lower Saxony, warned people on June 5 to stop eating local bean sprouts as they had become the latest suspected cause of the E. coli outbreak. A farm in Bienenbuettel, Lower Saxony, was announced as the probable source, but on June 6 officials said that this could not be substantiated by tests. Of the 40 samples from the farm that were being examined, 23 had tested negative. But on June 10 it was confirmed by the head of the Robert Koch Institute that the bean sprouts are the source of the outbreak, and that people who ate the bean sprouts were nine times more likely to have bloody diarrhea. The WHO have confirmed on June 10 this statement on the update 13 of the EHEC outbreak.

According to the head of the national E. coli lab at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, the strain responsible for the outbreak has been circulating in Germany for 10 years, and in humans not cattle. He said it is likely to have got into food via human feces.

A joint risk-assessment by EFSA/ECDC, issued June 29, 2011, made a connection between the German outbreak and a HUS outbreak in the Bordeaux area of France, first reported on June 24, in which infection with E. coli O104:H4 has been confirmed in several patients. The assessment implicated fenugreek seeds imported from Egypt in 2009 and 2010, from which sprouts were grown, as a common source of both outbreaks, but cautioned that "there is still much uncertainty about whether this is truly the common cause of the infections", as tests on the seeds had not yet found any E. coli bacteria of the O104:H4 strain.

Affected countries


Most or all victims as of 8 June 2011 were believed to have become infected in Germany. Confirmed cases are listed below according to their location when diagnosed.

EU member nations


As of 3 June 2011 Germany was the most affected nation, with 18 people reported dead from the disease, and with another about 1,700 infected cases, 520 of them suffering from hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) which can cause kidney failure. It was reported on 26 May that, according to health officials, four cucumbers, three from Spain and the fourth of unknown origin, from a store in Hamburg were found to be contaminated by an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). These were at the time suspected to be responsible for the outbreak; in response German authorities began removing Spanish cucumbers from stores that day.

According to German Stern magazine, on 1 June, "Hamburg's Health Senator has rejected criticism for her warning on Spanish cucumbers", that has turned out to be unjustified and for which "Spain is now demanding compensation for the millions of losses caused to farmers."
On 30 May, German health officials convened for a meeting regarding the outbreak, the latter which is reported by European health officials to be the largest ever recorded in Germany.
Twelve of the fatalities have been women. All but one of those deaths were recorded in northern Germany, with Hamburg and its immediate vicinity being hit hardest, but fears that the outbreak was spreading increased when a 91-year-old woman died in the western state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Doctors are pinning their hopes on Eculizumab, a drug that was effective against hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

Around 100 patients with HUS were reported to have suffered significant kidney damage.


The only person in Spain infected is a man in his 40s who had traveled recently to Germany admitted to hospital in San Sebastian. A Spanish athlete who was in Germany on 22 May to run the Hamburg Marathon also became infected. She started to show symptoms during the race and after finishing was accepted to a hospital in Hamburg. She stated that she had not eaten any cucumbers during her stay but other raw fruits and vegetables.


On 31 May the first death from the outbreak in Sweden was reported, a woman in her 50s who died in a hospital in Borås after having been infected during a trip to Germany. Forty-one cases, fifteen serious, were being treated in Swedish hospitals as of 31 May, all of them linked to the German outbreak. On 28 June a patient that fell ill in mid June, was reported by the authorities to have been infected without a known connection to travel to Germany. The day before the Swedish National Food Administration, due to the E. coli outbreak, advised against eating raw sprouts for now.


On 27 May health authorities reported that two German tourists coming by bike from north Germany have been hospitalised in Austria after becoming ill with E.coli.

Czech Republic

The only confirmed case of infection was a female American tourist who had arrived from Germany shortly before.


Officials in Denmark said that, as of 30 May, fourteen cases had been confirmed, with at least 26 more suspected. Seven of those sickened by the disease had already suffered kidney failure, a symptom which occurs in the late stages of infection.

It was reported on 30 May that Denmark's Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) started checking Danish cucumbers for infections, while they advised against consuming cucumbers from Spain and cucumbers, lettuce and raw tomatoes from Germany.


Finland’s National Institute for Health and Welfare recorded its first proven case on June 4.


As of 3 June, the Institut de veille sanitaire reports 10 cases, all of which are persons who stayed in Germany at the time of their infection.

On 24 June, the same institute reports 10 cases in Aquitaine region, including 7 connected cases in the city of Bègles, six of which ate sprouts during a festival that took place on 8 June. Two of eight cases (seven of the eight were interviewed) who went to two Bordeaux, France hospitals for treatment, have come down with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) complication, with the potential for acute renal failure, according to a CNN story on the outbreak.

The strain of the infection on one of the above-mentioned patients presents with similar characteristics as the earlier German outbreak.

The Netherlands

On 6 June RIVM announced a total of six people have a confirmed EHEC infection. Four out of these have the HUS-syndrome while the other two cases have not kidney problems. All of these people have been visiting Germany recently. Other cases are still being investigated.


On 30 May, a woman had been hospitalised in serious condition with E. coli after returning from Hamburg, where at least 467 cases of intestinal infection have been recorded to that date.

United Kingdom

On 28 May it was announced that three people in the UK, all of whom had recently been in Germany, had become infected. On 29 May, the UK's Food Standards Agency issued a statement saying that no cucumbers infected with EHEC had been sold in the country.

Twelve children from the Redfield Edge Primary School, South Gloucestershire who were ill on 20 May and four of their parents who fell ill between then and 2 June, were infected with the known strain E. coli O157, not O104.

Non-EU member states


One case reported, as of 8 June, had recently visited Germany.


On June 5 an undisclosed number of cases were found in Norway.


It had reached Switzerland by 31 May and made one person ill, but no further details were present. A second case was reported to the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health on 1 June. and a third fell ill on 3 June.

United States

All four reported US cases, as of 5 June, had recently visited the Hamburg area.

Suspected cases


By 1 June 2011, Finland's National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) started examining whether or not a patient who had arrived at Helsinki’s Maria Hospital the preceding weekend was suffering from the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strain.


Luxembourg recorded its first suspected case on June 8th.


On 2 June, Portuguese authorities reported that three Portuguese citizens, one of them from the Portuguese Autonomous Region of Madeira who had returned from Hamburg in Germany are suspected to be infected due to having gastroenteritis. Tests from two of them came back negative for this strain of E. coli.


On June 8, the first suspected case was in Slovakia. the victim was a 25 year old man in the the in Košice, Slovakia.

International response

European Union

On 22 May, Health Commissioner John Dalli of the European Commission declared the issue to be an 'absolute priority', saying that the Commission is working with member states, particularly Germany, to identify the source of the outbreak. Speaking again on 1 June, Commissioner Dalli noted that the outbreaks have been limited in origin to the Greater Hamburg area and declared that any product ban would be disproportionate. He also said that he is working with Agriculture Commissioner Dacian Cioloş "to address the hardship faced by this group of our citizens that has also been hit hard by the E. coli outbreak". He also said on June that "In future we need to see how the timing of the alerts can be closer to the actual scientific basis and proof."

By June 7, EU Ministers held an emergency meeting in Luxembourg to discuss the growing crisis, which had left 23 people dead, more than 2,000 ill so far. Germany's Federal Agriculture Minister, Ilse Aigner, repeated her warnings to EU consumers to avoid eating any bean sprouts, cucumbers, tomatoes and salads.

The United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture has long been concerned regarding risks involving the E. coli risk in raw bean sprout production.

EU member nations

Apart from the German government, which warned against the consumption of all raw cucumbers, tomatoes and lettuce, several countries implemented restrictions or bans on the import of produce.


On May 29 Austria announced that "small amounts" of suspect cucumbers, tomatoes and aubergines, were removed from 33 stores for laboratory testing. On 31 May, Austrian authorities inspected 33 organic supermarkets to make sure Spanish vegetables had been removed. The move came after a German overzealous recall and ban on sales of cucumbers, tomatoes and aubergines that had been imported from Spain and then delivered to Austrian food stores by various German companies. As of June 1 Austria withdrew all Spanish cucumbers from their shops. Customers also expressed concern about imported cucumbers in general.


Belgium banned imports of Spanish cucumbers on 31 May. On May 31 Belgium's had confirmed that some Spanish cucumbers may have still been on sale in Belgium. The Belgian Agriculture Minister, Sabine Laruelle said that no cucumbers have been imported since the previouse winter. The government said to be unhappy with information from Germany.


On May 31, the Bulgarian Minister of Agriculture and Foods, Miroslav Naidenov reiterated that no cucumbers were imported from Spain into Bulgaria.

Czech Republic The Czech Agriculture and said cucumbers from the same batch that went to Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Luxembourg. The Czech Government officials said that their labs had tested a total 120 potentially tainted Spanish cucumbers the 29th as an interim safety measure, but refused to cast blame for the outbreak, which had yet to reach the Czech Republic by that date. On June 1 Czech Republic withdrew all Spanish cucumbers from their shops. As of 3 June, the only cases reported were foreigners.



By 31 May, one of Italy's agriculture lobbies, Coldiretti, had also used the outbreak to urge Italians to support their local growers and avoid imports by 31 May. On June 30 an Italian laboratory issued a report that, as of that date, there was no definitive proof vegetables are behind the outbreak. On June In in response to falling Italian cucumbers sales, Coldiretti carried out an anti-panic campaign, in which it handing out over 10 tons of cucumbers, for free in many of Italy's regions on June 4.



By 31 May, Luxembourg had refused to ban the sale of Spanish and German cucumbers.


By 31 May, The said that investigations made of the business run by the local Dutch cucumber grower and Dutch warehouse did not uncover any traces of the bacteria at that time. The Netherlands had also stopped exporting cucumbers to Germany on 31 May. On June 9, the Dutch authorities recalled that originated in the Netherlands, Germany and Spain were found to be contaminated with a different (and less toxic) strain of E. coli bacteria .


On 30 May, the Spanish government said that it was considering requesting compensation from Germany, claiming that "tremendous damage" had been done to the country's agricultural sector as a result of reduced exports inflicted by Germany's "speculations" on the origin of the outbreak. Since the beginning of the crisis, farms in Andalusia were estimated to have lost up to eight million euros per day. Spanish Health Minister Leire Pajin firmly stated there had been no native cases in Spain by 31 May.


On June 3, Slovenia's Agriculture Minister Dejan Zidan said all Slovene samples food test negative to E. coli. Slovenia’s Prime Minister, Borut Pahor asserted his opinion that Slovenia’s was perfectly safe.

Non-EU European nations


Albania had banned cucumber imports on 30 May, although health minister Petrit Vasili explained that Albanians are in no danger as all cucumbers were produced locally anyway, not imported.


On 30 May, Croatian doctors had increased the nation's medical caution level and were carefully screening people with symptoms which they thought could be corresponding to those of E. coli. By 1 June, Croatian greengrocers complain of drop in sales due to the spreading E. coli panic in Croatia's markets. Croatian scientists have been researching a new antibiotic called Adepantine which could help to cure E. Coli.



On 2 June Russia banned all fresh vegetables from the EU because of the E. coli outbreak. The EU condemned the ban.

The ban on EU vegetables was lifted on June 10, but stiff safety mesures remained in place.

Middle East


Egypt’s Minister of Health Ashraf Hatem denied his nation had any patients infected with the new E. coli strain, due to the strict precautions brought in to test over-seas tourists entering the country on June 2.


Lebanon started a temporarily ban on the importing of fresh vegetables from the EU on June 5.


Qatar began a temporarily ban on the importing of fresh cucumbers, tomatoes and lettuce from both Spain and Germany on June 5.

Saudi Arabia

On June 7, Saudi Arabian health officials banned the import of all fresh and canned vegetables from Europe. The said the ban was to prevent the spread of E. coli into the country.


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) have also blocked the import of Spanish cucumbers as of 1 June. It had banned cucumber imports from Spain, Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands by June 5.

North America


On June 2 Canada brought in stricter anti E. coli related food inspections and by June 3 the Public Health Agency of Canada said that no Canadians had been reported sick with the strain as of that date. The Canadian Government also brought in heavier import and hygiene restrictions on EU cucumbers, lettuces and tomatoes.


Authorities at the USDA as well as the FDA state that emerging strains of the harmful bacteria certainly are a significant problem, yet government bodies in the USA have concentrated mostly on the more infamous E. coli O157 serotype.

CNN reported that the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Foodborne and Mycobacterial Infectious Diseases has officially confirmed three (there are now reports of a fourth) reported U.S. cases, but each of these individuals had been in the Hamburg, Germany area before they returned and fell ill. The CDC has now recognized that the potential for further U.S. and European cases in the outbreak caused by this strain could now pose a potentially major public health threat. By June 3 the American military community in Europe had started taking additional safety precautions in response to the spreading E. coli outbreak.

On June 8, America's FDA said it was going to remain constantly vigilant and would consistently take steps to increase E. coli monitoring, as it felt appropriate. It said most of America's fresh produce is grown in areas of the U.S. and Central America, while the EU was not a significant source of fresh produce for the country.

Sub-Saharan Africa


The suspect-batches from either the Netherlands and/or Denmark were under investigation on 3 June.

East Asia

Hong Kong

On June 7, Hong Kong's Secretary for Food and Health, York Chow, said that there was a risk of the outbreak of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection by serogroup O104:H4 infecting Hong Kong nationals either living in Hong Kong or traveling to Germany.


In avocados imported from Europe to Thailand E. coli bacteria were identified, but it was not yet established whether this is the same strain as that in Europe caused the death of 25 people. The Thai government asked the population not to panic stating that there are many variants of the bacterium. Recommended, however, fruits and vegetables be thoroughly washed or cooked. E.coli bacteria was detected in a consignment of avocados come from a European country, which is not specified, according to a statement of the Ministry of Health. Thai government outlined, it will take 3 to 5 days to determine whether it is lethal strain.


By June 1 both Italian, Austrian, and French cucumber sales had begun to decline sharply, but the Austrian Health Ministry official Dr. Pamela Rendi-Wagner, claimed Austrian customers were still safe.

On 3 June, the governments of Spain, Portugal and Germany said that they would formally request EU agricultural aid for farmers affected by the outbreak. That day also saw Russia set up plans for new imports of cucumbers from the Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Egypt and Turkey.

By June 7, the EU’s farmers had reported they had lost millions of dollars in exports during the outbreak, with Fepex, Spain's fruit and vegetable industry group, saying it’s growers had $256,000,000 in turnover. French, Swiss, Bulgarian, German, Dutch, Belgian and Portuguese producers have also been similarly affected.

That day, the EU proposed issuing £135,000,000 in agricultural compensation to its farmers. The EU agriculture commissioner said the EU’s farmers could get back up to 30% of the cost of vegetables they were unable to sell. The EU's health commissioner, John Dalli, had formally criticised earlier that day Germany for rushing out "premature conclusions" about the source of an outbreak, and only helped to spread alarm among the public and farmers and untimely leading to the damaging the EU’s agriculture sector. John Dalli also told the EU parliament in Strasbourg that claims had to be scientifically sound, unbiased and fool-proof in nature before it was publicised in future.

Spain then rejected a €150,000,000/£135,000,000 the European Commission’s compensation deal for there for farmers who were hit by the E. coli outbreak, on June 8, saying it was too small. France, European Union’s largest agricultural grower, said it would support the plan to compensate producers hurt by the outbreak, according to the French Agriculture Minister Bruno Le Maire.

Ministers from both EU and Russian were scheduled to meet on June 8 over Russian's earlier decision to ban all its vegetable imports from the EU.

On June 8, it was reckoned that the EU’s E. coli O104:H4 outbreak cost $2,840,000,000 in human losses (such as sick leave), regardless of material losses (such as dumped cucumbers).

Consumers across Europe were shunning fruit and vegetables on mass by June 8, as the German government‘s against eating raw cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce and sprouts remained on. EU farmers claimed to have losses up to C$417,000,000 ($611,000,000) a week as ripe vegetables produce rotted in their fields and warehouses. On June 8, The EU Farm Commissioner Dacian Ciolos said that the EU had increased its offer of to farmers for the losses caused by E. coli outbreak to C$210,000,000 ($306,000,000).

EU states

On June 8, Dacian Cioloş, the European Commissioner for Agriculture & Rural Development, increased the compensation offer to €210 million ($306.2 million) for farmers who lost money due to the outbreak.


By June 3, Bulgaria had suffered financial losses after some countries, including Russia, banned imports of vegetables from the EU, according to the Minister of Agriculture and Foods, Miroslav Naidenov.


On June 3, the Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero said Spain’s Government would demand reparations for any economic losses suffered as a result of Germany's and Russia’s cucumber blockades. By June 7, the EU’s Farmers had reported they had lost millions of $ in exports during the outbreak, with Fepex, Spain's fruit and vegetable industry group, saying it’s growers had $256,000,000m in turnover. Spain then rejected a €150,000,000/£135,000,000 the European Commission’s compensation deal for there for farmers who were hit by the E. coli outbreak, on June 8, saying it was too small.

Non EU states


By 1 June, Croatia’s greengrocers had complained of drop in sales due to the spreading E. coli panic in Croatia's markets.


On June 3, Swiss farmers destroyed unsold stocks of cucumbers as a result of the growing fears over the E. coli epidemic that was hitting the EU, despite the fact that all cucumbers have been cleared as the source of the bacteria. According to a Swiss television report on that day, the alone had to destroy 30,000-40,000 of its cucumbers. A further report said another Zurich farmer was due to throw away around 10,000 cucumbers that he could not sell that day. Many farmers have reported seeing their turnover from fresh vegetables drop by up to 50% since the E. coli outbreak had begun.

Turkey Russia requested further Turkish cucumber imports to replace banned EU imports.



Russia requested further Azerbaijani cucumber imports to make up for banned EU imports.

See also



Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_German_E._coli_O104:H4_outbreak