1997–98 EEHL season

1997–98 EEHL season

This was the 1997-98 Eastern European Hockey League season, the third season of the multi-national ice hockey league.

First round

Final round

Championship round

5th-8th place


This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1997%E2%80%9398_EEHL_season


Eggfruit Caterpillar

Sceliodes cordalis

Sceliodes cordalis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Crambidae
Genus: Sceliodes
Species: S. cordalis
Binomial name
Sceliodes cordalis
(Doubleday, 1843)
  • Margaritia cordalis Doubleday, 1843
  • Eratria obsistalis
  • Daraba extensalis Walker, 1866
  • Eretria obsistalis Snellen, 1880
  • Sceliodes mucidalis Guenée, 1854

The Eggfruit Caterpillar (Sceliodes cordalis) is a species of moth of the Crambidae family. It is found in New Zealand and the whole of Australia.

The wingspan is about 20 mm.

The larvae are considered an agricultural pest on several Solanaceae species, such as Lycopersicum esculentum, Physalis edulis, Solanum aviculare, Solanum melongena and Datura species. They cause damage by tunneling into the stems and fruit of the plants.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sceliodes_cordalis

Derby Art Gallery

Derby Museum and Art Gallery

Derby Museum and Art Gallery

The 1964 extension to the original building houses the museum and art gallery today
Established 1879
Location the Wardwick in Derby
Collection size Joseph Wright paintings
Website derby.gov.uk/LeisureCulture/MuseumsGalleries/Derby Museum and Art Gallery

Derby Museum and Art Gallery was established in 1879, along with Derby Central Library, in a new building designed by Richard Knill Freeman and given to Derby by Michael Thomas Bass. The collection includes a whole gallery displaying the paintings of Joseph Wright of Derby; there is also a large display of Royal Crown Derby and other porcelain from Derby and the surrounding area. Further displays include archaeology, natural history, geology and military collections. The Art Gallery has been open since 1882.

The museum uses QRpedia to allow visitors to read Wikipedia articles about objects in the collection, translated into their preferred language.


The museum can trace its start to the formation of the Derby Town and County Museum and Natural History Society on 10 February 1836. The society was housed by Full Street Public Baths but it was a private society funded by its members' subscriptions. Its collections were created by donations initially from Dr Forrester who had been a President of Derby Philosophical Society. The patron of the Museum Society was William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, and the President was Sir George Crewe who was a keen naturalist. Col. George Gawler contributed a collection of minerals and exotic stuffed birds which included an albatross from his time as governor in South Australia. In 1839 there was a major exhibition at the Mechanics' Institute which contained many items including those from Joseph Strutt's collection. Many of these made their way into Derby Museum's collection. The society moved in 1840 to the Athenaeum in Victoria Street. The society's collections grew in 1856 and they were first offered for incorporation into the town by William Mundy, but the offer was rejected.

In 1857, Llewellyn Jewitt became secretary and the museum was opened to the general public on Saturday mornings. In 1858 the Derby Philosophical Society moved to a house on the Wardwick in Derby as it merged with what was called the Derby Town and County Museum and the Natural History Society. This move included the society's library of 4,000 volumes, mathematical and scientific apparatus and its collection of fossils. In 1863 the botanist Alexander Croall was appointed the first Librarian and Curator and the following year the museum and library were joined together. Croall left in 1875 to become the curator of the Smith Institute in Stirling.

The Derby Town and County Museum was finally transferred into the ownership of Derby Corporation in 1870, but there were difficulties in finding space to display the collections. After placing all the artefacts into storage for three years, the museum was finally opened to the public on 28 June 1879. The Art Gallery opened in 1882 and in 1883 the museum had electricity supplied for new lighting.

In 1936 the museum was given a substantial collection of paintings by Alfred E. Goodey who had been collecting art for 50 years. At his death in 1945 he left £13,000 to build an extension to the museum. The extension, which now houses the museum, was completed in 1964. Refurbishment to parts of both the new and old buildings were undertaken in 2010–2011.

Derby and the Enlightenment connection

Derby was significant in the eighteenth century for its role in the Enlightenment, a period in which science and philosophy challenged the divine right of kings to rule. The enlightenment has many strands, including the largely philosophical "Scottish enlightenment" centred around the philosopher David Hume, and political changes that culminated in the French revolution, but the English Midlands was an area where many key figures of industry and science came together. The famous Lunar Society. included Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, Joseph Priestley and Josiah Wedgwood with Benjamin Franklin corresponding from America Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin; started the Derby Philosophical Society when he moved to Derby in 1783. It was this society which helped to found the first library in Derby.

Some of the paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, which are notable for their use of light and shade, are of Lunar Society members. Derby museum has over 300 of Wright's sketches, 34 oil paintings, and documents. One is entitled The Alchymist in Search of the Philosopher's Stone (1771) and it depicts the discovery of the element phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669. A flask in which a large quantity of urine has been boiled down is seen bursting into light as the phosphorus, which is abundant in urine, ignites spontaneously in air.

A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery shows an early mechanism for demonstrating the movement of the planets around the sun, and an actual orrery is on display in the centre of the gallery in front of the painting. The Scottish scientist, astronomer and lecturer James Ferguson undertook a series of lectures in Derby in July 1762. They were based on his book Lectures on Select Subjects in Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, Optics &c., published in 1760. In order to illustrate his lectures he used various machines, models and instruments. Wright possibly attended Ferguson’s lecture, especially as tickets for the event were available from John Whitehurst, his close neighbour, the clockmaker and scientist. The artist could also have drawn on Whitehurst’s practical knowledge to find out more about the orrery and its operation.

Significance of Joseph Wright's paintings

These factual paintings are considered to have metaphorical meaning too, the bursting into light of the phosphorus in front of a praying figure signifying the problematic transition from faith to scientific understanding and enlightenment, and the various expressions on the figures around the bird in the airpump indicating concern over the possible inhumanity of the coming age of science. These paintings represent a high point in scientific enquiry which began the undermining of the power of religion in Western societies. Some ten years later scientists worldwide would find themselves persecuted, or even put to death in the backlash to the French Revolution of 1789, itself the culmination of enlightenment thinking. Joseph Priestley, member of the Lunar Society and discoverer of oxygen would flee Britain after his laboratory in Birmingham was smashed and his house burned down in the Birmingham riots of 1791, by a mob objecting to his outspoken support for the French Revolution; and his colleague Lavoisier in France would be executed at the guillotine. The politician and philosopher Edmund Burke, in his famous Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), tied natural philosophers, and specifically Priestley, to the French Revolution, writing that radicals who supported science in Britain "considered man in their experiments no more than they do mice in an air pump". In the light of this comment, Wright's painting of the bird in the air pump, completed over twenty years earlier, seems particularly prescient.

It was against this background that Charles Darwin, grandson of the Derby man and lunar society member, Erasmus, would re-awaken the conflict between science and religious belief once again half a century later, with the publication of his book The Origin of Species in 1859.

Because of this web of connections related to science, and the tensions it created which were so subtly illustrated by the art of the painter Joseph Wright of Derby; Derby Museum and Art Gallery, far from being just a collection of fine paintings as the casual visitor might imagine, is significant for being in a place that some would see as having a very significant role in the birth of modern science and industry worldwide. Birmingham, with its science and industry, has been described as the 'silicon valley' of the eighteenth century.

Erasmus Darwin has only a small display. Herbert Spencer, friend of Charles Darwin, and originator of the phase "the survival of the fittest", who was born in Derby, and has been described as the founder of sociology does not appear to be mentioned at all.

Wright of Derby

In 2011, Derby City Council announced that it was to use Joseph Wright of Derby to brand the city of Derby. At the same time, the Museum announced that it was "joining forces" with Wikipedia to improve the quality of its information. In February 2011 the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA) announced that it had awarded Designated status to Derby Museum and Art Gallery for its nationally significant holdings of paintings and drawings by Joseph Wright.

Bonnie Prince Charlie Room

A replica of the room in Derby where Bonnie Prince Charlie held his "council of war" in 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown. The paneling is from the original Exeter House, which was demolished 1854. At the time of demolition, the panels were bought to the museum, which then received related objects as donations. Even Queen Victoria sent an original letter of Bonnie Prince Charlie from her own collection.

Other artists

Besides the Wright collection there are also works by Benjamin West, E.E. Clark, Harold Gresley, Alfred John Keene, Georg Holtzendorff, David Payne, George and William Lakin Turner, , Ernest Townsend, Samuel and Louise Rayner.

See also


External links

Coordinates: 52°55′20″N 1°28′46″W / 52.92225°N 1.4795°W

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derby_Museum_and_Art_Gallery

Castnia maris

Prometheus (genus)

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Castniidae
Genus: Prometheus
Hübner, [1824]
Species: P. cochrus
Binomial name
Prometheus cochrus
(Fabricius, 1787)
  • Papilio cochrus Fabricius, 1787
  • Prometheus casmilus Hübner, [1824]
  • Castnia maris Dalman, 1824
  • Castnia garbei Foetterle, 1902
  • Castnia f. bipunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. combinata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. depunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. tripunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia houlberti Rothschild, 1919
  • Castnia cochrus intermedia Raymundo, 1930 (preocc. Pfeiffer, 1917)
  • Castnia cochrus osmani Raymundo, 1931

Prometheus is a genus of moths within the family Castniidae containing only one species, Prometheus cochrus, which is found in Brazil and Paraguay.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus_(genus)

Castnia garbei

Prometheus (genus)

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Castniidae
Genus: Prometheus
Hübner, [1824]
Species: P. cochrus
Binomial name
Prometheus cochrus
(Fabricius, 1787)
  • Papilio cochrus Fabricius, 1787
  • Prometheus casmilus Hübner, [1824]
  • Castnia maris Dalman, 1824
  • Castnia garbei Foetterle, 1902
  • Castnia f. bipunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. combinata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. depunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia f. tripunctata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia houlberti Rothschild, 1919
  • Castnia cochrus intermedia Raymundo, 1930 (preocc. Pfeiffer, 1917)
  • Castnia cochrus osmani Raymundo, 1931

Prometheus is a genus of moths within the family Castniidae containing only one species, Prometheus cochrus, which is found in Brazil and Paraguay.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus_(genus)

Dartford Creek

River Darent

River Darent

Confluence of the River Darent (left) and the River Cray on Crayford Marshes.

Hills south of Westerham

TQ 450 519
51°14′53″N 0°04′26″E / 51.247917°N 0.073981°E

River Thames

TQ 541 780
51°28′48″N 0°13′12″E / 51.479887°N 0.220133°ECoordinates: 51°28′48″N 0°13′12″E / 51.479887°N 0.220133°E
Length 21 miles (34 km)

The River Darent or River Darenth is a Kentish tributary of the River Thames in England. Its name is believed to be from a Celtic word meaning 'river where oak-trees grow' (compare "Derwent"). The tidal part of the river is known as the Dartford Creek.

Fed by springs in the greensand hills south of Westerham in Kent and Limpsfield Chart in Surrey it flows for 21 miles (34 km) eastwards and then northwards past the villages of Otford and Shoreham, past the castle and ruined Roman villa at Lullingstone, past Eynsford, Farningham, Horton Kirby, South Darenth, Sutton-at-Hone, Darenth, and through the large town of Dartford. North of Dartford the Darent receives the waters of the River Cray from the west as it passes through Dartford Marshes and Crayford Marshes, where it forms a boundary between Greater London and Kent (and specifically, the London Borough of Bexley and the borough of Dartford). The Darent joins the Thames near Crayford Ness.

As its name suggests, Dartford ('Tarentefort' in the Domesday Book) was once a fording place over the Darent where it crossed the road from London to the Kent coast. There are records of a ford operating in Roman times. A ferry, operated by a hermit, was established there by 1235. The post of hermit continued until 1518, long after the first bridge was built (a footbridge, constructed during the reign of Henry IV (1399–1413) and surviving until the mid-18th century). The landscapes of the river's valley were painted in a visionary manner by the early Victorian artist Samuel Palmer.

The river is largely small and peaceful, a surprise given the breadth of the valley it has cut out. Apparently the 'proto-Darent' was formerly much larger than the present day but the River Medway, through erosion of the soft chalk and clays of the North Downs/Western Weald, has captured much of the headwaters that once supplied the Darent.

The river was used for trade and in 1835 approximately 50,000 to 60,000 tons per annum were being carried on the river. The size of the river limited single cargoes to 50 long tons (51 t) even on spring tides and as a result a ship canal was proposed. The proposal was unable to overcome its critics and as a result in 1839 an alternative based on dredging the river and a few short cuts was taken up. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1840 allowing construction to start and tolls to be levied once the work was complete. The project was completed in 1844 and included shortening the upper part of the navigation through the use of a cut and dredging.

By 1989 it was realised that the flow of the river was decreasing dramatically, when it was officially recognised as the 'lowest flow' river in the country. Wildlife was being destroyed. Since then much work has been carried out to rectify the situation, including shutting down of a number of boreholes along its length, by the Environment Agency. A sculpture was unveiled in 2004 to celebrate the renewed life of the river, depicting the wildlife which has been saved.


The River Darent powered a number of watermills. From source to mouth they are:

Westerham (Elm View) Mill

TQ 444 537

The miller at this corn mill in 1771 was James Marchane, who was joined by his son James. James Jr died in 1805 and James Sr died c.1812. The mill was sketched by G. Samuel in 1818. It had an overshot waterwheel. The cast iron overshot waterwheel was 12 feet (3.66 m) by 2 feet 9.5 inches (0.85 m). It was fitted in 1868, replacing a wooden wheel which may have been breast shot. In 1890, the waterwheel was adapted to drive a set of pumps to supply Westerham. An average of 25,000 imperial gallons (110,000 l) could be supplied. The milling machinery was removed in 1936 and during the Second World War a doodlebug landed nearby and blew the roof of the mill off. The derelict building stood in April 1954, but had been demolished by July 1960.

Darenth (Tower Wood) Mill

TQ 449 540
This corn mill had an external cast iron overshot waterwheel carried on a wooden axle. The mill was working up to the outbreak of the First World War and demolished in the 1930s. It had two pairs of millstones.

Squerryes (Spring Shaw) Mill, Westerham

TQ 447 532
Squerryes, or Spring Shaw Mill was a corn mill with a cast iron overshot waterwheel some 9 feet (2.74 m) or 10 feet (3.05 m) diameter and 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. The mill was marked as disused on the 1895 6" Ordnance Survey map. It was a small building of 17 feet 6 inches (5.33 m) square and had been demolished by 1955. Little is known of the machinery except that the upright shaft was wooden and of 11.5 inches (290 mm) diameter. The wooden great spur wheel was of compass arm construction.

Valence Pump, Brasted

TQ 461 535
This water powered pump was driven by a cast iron high breast shot waterwheel of 16 feet (4.88 m) by 3 feet 5 inches (1.04 m). A 6 feet (1.83 m) diameter cast iron spur geared pitwheel drove two ram pumps. The pump dated from 1858 and was still in existence in 1980.

Brasted Mill

TQ 470 552

This was a corn mill, now converted to a dwelling. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was 13 feet (3.96 m) by 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m). In September 1812, James Weight, miller of Brasted, was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. A man by the name of Staples who went by the name of Chapman had leased the mill in Brasted in 1812; he claimed relief in January 1815. The mill ceased work in the 1920s and the machinery was removed c1934.

Sundridge Mill

TQ 489 556
This was a paper mill. In December 1822 Nicholas Tapsfield, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself and his wife Mary. He had been apprenticed at a paper mill at East Malling. In December 1831, Thomas Green, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. He had been apprenticed in 1804 to William Dacie at a paper mill in Bermondsey, then to a Mr Hall in St. Mary Cray when Dacie retired. In March 1832, Henry Sparks, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, wife Susanna and five children. He had been apprenticed to Messrs. Smith & Knight at Godalming in 1796, serving only four years. In May 1839, Henry Thomas, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself. He had been a papermaker all his working life. The internal overshot waterwheel was 12 feet 6 inches (3.81 m) by 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m), carried on an oak axle. Sundridge Mill produced paper for the Bank of England until its closure in 1901, business being transferred to Eynsford Paper Mill. The mill buildings were converted to a laundry, and the waterwheel was removed c1914 to be replaced by steam power. The mill was demolished in October 1969.

Chipstead Mill, Chevening

TQ 499 560
Chipstead Mill was a four storey building which had been enlarged in the late C19th. It worked until after the Second World War, but the machinery had been removed by 1950. The waterwheel was overshot and drove two pairs of French Burr millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power until it was replaced by a 75 horsepower (56 kW) suction gas engine. Roller milling plant had been installed in the 1890s but milling ceased in the 1920s. The mill building was standing in the 1980s.

Longford Mill, Dunton Green

TQ 513 568
This was a corn mill rebuilt by Weeks of Maidstone in 1859, it had an internal cast iron overshot waterwheel 7 feet (2.13 m) by 12 feet (3.66 m), which had probably replaced a breast shot waterwheel of larger diameter. The waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones. Electricity replaced water power between the wars, and the mill last worked in 1947. The stones of the mill were said to have been caused to run backwards at one time through the mill being bewitched. The mill drove three pairs of millstones, the machinery being mostly of cast iron. The mill building survived until 1987 when the site was redeveloped.

Otford Mill

TQ 524 594
There was a watermill in Otford in 1541. The last mill on this site was a corn mill with two waterwheels. It was latterly used as a saw mill and burnt down on 7 January 1924. A picture of the mill can be seen here. The breastshot waterwheel remained in 1930. One waterwheel was of wood construction, driving three pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The machinery was all wooden. The second waterwheel was of cast iron, driving two pairs of French Burr stones vis cast iron machinery.

Upper Mill, Shoreham

TQ 520 610
This was a corn mill. Originally powered by an internal breast shot waterwheel of some 14 feet (4.27 m) by 6 feet (1.83 m) driving one pair of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The great spur wheel was a cast iron wheel with wooden cogs. The waterwheel had been replaced by a turbine which drove the millstones via a great spur wheel that was only 3 feet 3 inches (990 mm) diameter. The mill was house converted in 1971.

Lower (Shoreham Paper) Mill, Shoreham

TQ 520 621
This was the site of a fulling mill belonging to Palsters Manor. It was bought by the Passele family in the 14th century. The manor passed to Francis Sandbach in 1578 and was willed to John Polhill. He bought the fulling mill in 1602. The last mill on the site was a paper mill; it was demolished in 1936. The low breast shot waterwheel was 16 feet (4.88 m) by 8 feet (2.44 m). It drove machinery via a layshaft driven from the spur geared pitwheel. The mill was demolished in the 1930s. The paper mill had been run for over 200 years by the Wilmot family.

Wood Mill, Eynsford

TQ 531 648
Although it is said that this mill, which stood just downstream of Eynsford Bridge, was a corn mill with an undershot waterwheel other evidence shows this to have been a water powered saw mill which had been erected c1853. It may have stood on the site of an earlier mill.

Old Mill, Eynsford

TQ 540 656
This was a corn mill. It stands immediately downstream of the bridge by Eynsford ford. The low breast shot waterwheel was 8 feet (2.44 m) diameter in 1887, being replaced by one of at least 10 feet (3.05 m) diameter. It was 10 feet (3.05 m) wide. The millstones were only 3 feet (910 mm) diameter, suggesting that only a limited amount of flour was available. The mill was working until 1911, no auxiliary power being used. The building was house converted in the 1920s and survives today.

Eynsford Paper Mill

TQ 544 661
This paper mill was founded in 1648 by Hugenot refugees. The paper mill replaced an earlier corn mill. In 1882, it is recorded as having a waterwheel 18 feet 3 inches (5.56 m) by 8 feet (2.44 m). The mill suffered two fires in the 20th century but was rebuilt. It was working until 1952 but has now been demolished.

Farningham Mill

TQ 545 670
A mill has been on this site since Domesday. In the 15th century the mill was in the possession of the Roper family, Sir Anthony Roper being charged with "pulling down and allowing the watermill to decay and become uninhabited" in 1636. He was ordered to rebuild the mill within two years. The present building built by the Colyers dates to c.1780. The mill was a corn mill; the converted building survives. A curious feature is that the door on the north side of the east face is painted on, to look symmetrical with the real door. The mill was latterly worked by a turbine which drove a saw mill in its final years of operation. The mill last worked for trade in 1900.

Franks Generating Station, Horton Kirby

TQ 556 677
This installation was of late C19th date. A turbine drove a generating plant to provide elecricity to Franks Hall. After it ceased to be used, the turbine is said to have been installed in Westminster Mill.

Westminster Mill, Horton Kirby

TQ 560 685

This was a corn mill which stood upstream of the paper mill. Henry Knight was a miller in Horton who died in 1724 and Thomas Welch was a miller in Horton who died in 1734. George Cannon took the mill in the early 1830s. In 1843 he was bankrupt as a common brewer, an occupation he carried on along with the mill. Ill health forced his retirement in 1852, and the mill was bought by his brother Stephen. His son, also Stephen, was running Old Mill from 1850, then being 14 years old. Stephen Cannon (father) died in 1872 and Stephen Cannon (son) sold Westminster Mill and Old Mill in order to concentrate the milling business at a mill in Bexley. Latterly the waterwheel was replaced by a turbine and the mill generated electricity. The mill burnt down when struck by lightning in 1908 and was rebuilt as a factory which made shoe laces. The factory closed down in 1991 and the mill has been demolished and the site redeveloped as housing.

Horton Kirby Paper Mill

TQ 563 695
This mill is under the viaduct of the Chatham Main Line railway. In 1700 there were two corn mills and a forge here. The mill was rebuilt by Henry Hall in 1820 as a paper mill. Paper from this mill was used to print The Sphere and The Tatler; photographs of the paper making process at the mill were used in the first edition of The Children's Encyclopedia. Henry Hall was the proprietor in 1840. An illustration of the machine house c.1880 can be seen here. The mill has a chimney 230 feet (70 m) high, which is a listed building. The mill was last used as a factory and closed in 2003, with plans being put forward for conversion to housing use in 2005. The chimney dates to 1880.

Frog Lane Mill, Sutton at Hone

TQ 559 696
This corn mill was of C19th date. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was 10 feet (3.05 m) by 6 feet (1.83 m) carried on a 5 inches (130 mm) square axle. An unusual feature of this mill was that the pitwheel was the same diamter as the waterwheel. The mill had ceased working by 1914. The upper storeys of the mill were demolished in February 1936, leaving the brick base, waterwheel and some machinery. These had been cleared away by June 1965.

South Darenth Mill

TQ 563 697 South Darenth Mill was a brick building that replaced an earlier mill that burnt down in 1879. This mill was run by the Cannon family. The mill had a cast iron waterwheel which drove three pairs of millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power. In 1894, roller milling plant was installed but milling ceased in 1905. The building was severely damaged in the Great Storm of 1987.

Darenth Paper Mill

TQ 558 714 Darenth Paper Mill was working until 1931 when it was taken over by Messrs Portals Ltd, of Laverstoke, Hampshire. In 1910, it was in the occupation of Messrs T H Saunders & Co Ltd, also at Hawley Mills and Beech and Rye Mills, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. The breast shot waterwheel was of cast iron with wooden floats. It was12 feet (3.66 m) by 10 feet (3.05 m).

Sutton (Old, Sutton at Hone, Darenth Corn, Little Darenth) Mill

TQ 557 713

This corn mill stood at Old Mill Farm. It was built by Thomas Edmeads in the early 19th century. In 1806 the tenant millers were Stephen and George Cannon. The Cannon brothers were declared bankrupt in May 1816 but discharged their debts and returned to milling. George Cannon was again declared bankrupt in 1823. Stephen Cannon had three sons William, George and Stephen. They all learnt the milling trade at his mill.

Stephen Cannon later bought the mill and it passed to his daughter Harriet on his death on 27 February 1856. The mill remained in the Cannon family until 1872, and the mill house until 1888. Latterly the mill had a steam engine and a tall chimney. During the First World War, a bomb hit the mill, but did not explode, although the mill was put out of action. The mill was demolished in September 1928. Photographs of the mill during demolition reveal the cast iron low breast shot waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones via a cast iron layshaft. The original wooden upright shaft and crown wheel were retained.

Hawley Mills, Sutton at Hone

TQ 552 718
A site mentioned in Domesday, the mills here were held by the manor of Bignoures and belonged to the Knights of St. John in the Middle Ages, being let at a peppercorn rent to the Prioress of Dartford Nunnery. A wheat mill and a malt mill were released to one George Tasser in 1534. William Vaughan received them from the Crown in 1546 and the mills reverted to the Crown when he died in 1580. The two mills were granted to John Spilman (later Sir John Spilman) by the Crown in 1581.

In 1588, Spilman converted the corn mill into a paper mill, and obtained a monopoly for his paper by manipulating the favour and patronage of successive monarchs. Thomas Churchyard wrote a long poem in 1588, the first description of the papermaking process. Spielman employed 600 men, mainly Germans. The mills remained in the Spilman family until 1679, then a Mr Blackman was the owner in 1686 but he was bankrupt by 1739. Messrs. Pike and Edsall purchased the mill and converted it into a gunpowder mill.There were explosions here in 1745, 1790, 1795, 1796, 1799 and 1833. These killed at least forty people. Edsall went bankrupt in 1778 and the mills were purchased by Messrs Pigou and Andrews. The mill was a papermill by 1840, when William Wiggins was the owner.

The malt mill was not required by Spilman, and he leased it to Godfrey Box of Liège. He erected an iron rolling and slitting mill (for the manufacture of nails; the first in England) between 1590 and 1595, which by 1758 had two waterwheels, one working the upper roller, the other working the lower rollers and a guillotine. A company of "white paper makers" was established here in 1694 and during the 18th century the mill was owned by a Mr Quelch.

Dartford Powder Mills

Approximately TQ 548 728
The Powder Mills were in operation from c1730, possibly on the site of Spilman's paper mill of 1588. It was in operation until the C20th.

Lower Paper Mill, Dartford

TQ 547 732
Lower Mill was built in the mid C17th, and closed in 1790. Later it was used as a zinc rolling mill and a printing works for silk and calico.

Victoria Mills, Dartford

TQ 545 739

Victoria Mills stood on the site of a 15th century fulling mill and an old wire mill, mentioned by William Lambarde in 1570 as a glazing mill. This was used for polishing armoured plate. In the early 19th century there were three mills here; an oil mill, a mustard mill and a corn mill in the late 18th century it was owned by a Mr Fomereau and worked by the Loder family. The corn mill was a four storey wood structure built in 1790. In the early 19th century, miller James Hard was appointed miller to King George IV. It had a wrought iron breast shot waterwheel of 20' diameter driving four pairs of millstones.

Colyers (Orchard's, Bridge, Acacia Hall) Mill, Dartford

TQ 544 739
In 1217 King John granted a mill worth 100/- a year, situated in Dartford to Michael de Wallensi and in 1221 William, Prior of Rochester, granted to Alan Martel, Prior of the Knights Templars, half an acre of land by the mill. The mill belonged to the Bishop of Rochester in 1253 and in 1299 was known as Orchard's mill, being then privately owned. Henry Colyer was the miller in 1840. The mill was later run by R & H Strickland Ltd, although milling ceased in 1893 and the building was stripped of its machinery, including a large cast iron waterwheel and a steam engine, in 1898. It then served as a social club for Messrs Burroughs Wellcome & Co. The mill burnt down on 24 January 1962.

Silk Printing Works, Dartford

TQ 544 743
There was a silk printing works in Dartford which is said to have been powered by a waterwheel. It was said that the waterwheel had been "recently removed" in 1986 as part of a clearance programme for the section of river that the works stood on.

Phoenix Mill, Dartford

TQ 544 745
This was the furthermost mill on the Darent. About 1650 one John Brown erected a "brassell" mill for splitting iron into rods and nails. Nicholas Tooke owned the mill in 1656 followed by Charles Mauum from 1687 to 1719 and then Messrs. Cooke and Coolson in 1779. The brassell mill gave way to a saw mill, then in 1790 a seven storey cotton mill was built. This burnt down in 1795 and a smaller building, the Phoenix Mill was erected in 1797. George Willding was the miller and Messrs Saunders and Harrison were mustard makers here in 1840. T H Saunders rebuilt it in 1855. William Masters was a workman here until his death in 1873, and has a memorial in Horton Kirby church. It was a paper mill and closed in 1889.


Various tributaries feed into the River Darent. They also powered a number of watermills.

Stream at Brasted

Mill Farm Mill, Brasted

TQ 468 554
Mill Farm Mill may have been built in 1705, which is the date of the Mill House. It was worked by the Smith family, ceasing work c1858. The 14 feet (4.27 m) by 3 feet (0.91 m) cast iron waterwheel and machinery were removed before the First World War. The building was standing in 1954, converted to a garage.

Stream at Chevening

Whitley (Dibden) Mill, Chevening

TQ 508 533
This mill stood deep in woodland west of Sevenoaks. It was held by Ralph Bosville of Bradbourne Manor in the 16th century. The mill was in existence until at least the mid-19th century but had ceased working by 1900. The overshot waterwheel of composite construction was carried on a wooden axle 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m) long and 18 inches (460 mm) square at the waterwheel, 12 inches (300 mm) diameter in the mill. The mill was in ruins by the 1920s

Stream at Ightham

Ightham Mill

A tributary rising near St. Cleres is reputed to have driven a watermill, possibly the one at Ightham recorded in 1322 as the property of William Inge.

Kemsing Mill

TQ 543 586
This mill was on the tributary that drove the mill at Ightham. Kemsing is reputed to be the site of a Roman watermill at Springhead, which was excavated in 1949.

Greatness Stream

Greatness Mill, Sevenoaks

An old mill site, in 1381 a mill at Gretnarsche was in the possession of John Colepeper. The mills were later in the ownership of the Fane/Vane family, being known as "Gretness-mylls" in the 1550s, being two water corn mills. John Thorpe (miller?) was living at Greatness Mill at the time of his death in 1835. The building is of weatherboard on a steel frame on a brick base, replacing an earlier mill that burnt down after the First World War. The overshot waterwheel was 20 feet (6.10 m) by 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m). It drove two pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. Roller milling plant had been fitted by 1906. In 1927, the mill was still worked by water power, aided by a 15 horsepower (11 kW) gas engine.

Greatness Silk Mill, Sevenoaks

TQ 535 570
This mill was built in 1761 by Peter Nouaille, who came into the possession of the manorial watermill on marrying Elizabeth de la Mare of Greatness. It stood downstream of the corn mill. Nouaille went bankrupt in 1778 but recovered, employing 100 people when he retired in 1800. The mill had a breastshot waterwheel. It closed down after Nouaille's death c1828. The mills were immortalised in the poem Ode on the Silk Mills at Greatness by Joseph Harrison.


Childs Bridge Mill, Kemsing

TQ 545 580
A long lost mill site, thought to have been a corn mill. The mill pond was some 400 yards (370 m) by 50 yards (46 m) in extent.

Longlodge Mill, Otford

TQ 531 584
Possibly the site of one of Otford's eight Domesday mills. The mill was abandoned at an early date as it was not remembered in field names.

Stream at Bradbourne

Bradbourne Mill, Sevenoaks

This was a corn mill. On 24 October 1545 Bradbourne Mill was granted by Henry VIII to William Darkenolde for 21 years at £6.13s.4d per annum. The King finding the timber for the repair of the mill. In 1557, Ralph Bosville bought the mill. In 1592, Henry Bosville died, leaving his manor of Bradbourne, and a "water grist mill" in the tenure of Richard Phillipes and a "Sythe Mill" in the occupation of Chapman amongst his property.

Cranpit Stream

Hall's Engineering Works, Dartford

TQ 542 745
Millwright John Hall built a cast iron waterwheel to replace a windmill that powered some of the machinery at his workshops in Hythe Street, Dartford.


There were a number of fords on the River Darent.


TQ 5205 6165 51°19′59″N 0°10′59″E / 51.333127°N 0.182954°E

There was a ford by the bridge in the village.


TQ 539 655 51°22′03″N 0°12′43″E / 51.367617°N 0.211823°E

Eynsford is famous for its ford by the old packhorse bridge.


There was a ford at Farningham, now replaced by a bridge.


There was a ford in Dartford in Roman times, Dartford being a contraction of Darent-ford. The ford was still in existence in 1840.

See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Darent