Assyrian Church of the East (India)

Chaldean Syrian Church

Chaldean Syrian Church is the official name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India affiliated with the Church of the East, now known as Assyrian Church of the East.

The Chaldean Syrian Church is one of several groups of Saint Thomas Christians tracing their origins to St. Thomas the Apostle who, according to tradition, came to India in AD 52. The church accepts the first two ecumenical councils namely, Council of Nicea in 325 AD and the Council of Constantinople in 381 AD

Despite carrying the "Chaldean" title in its name, it should not be confused with Chaldean Catholic Church, which was part of the Church of the East that entered into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church in 1830. Rather Chaldean Syrian Church of India remains in full communion with Church of the East and its successor Assyrian Church of the East.


Thomas the Apostle is credited by tradition for founding the Indian Church in 52 A.D. This Nasrani faith had many similarities to Judaism, and, owing to the heritage of the Nasrani people, developed contacts with the non-Chalcedonian religious authorities of Edessa, Mesopotamia.

The local church maintained its autonomous character under its local leader. When the Portuguese established themselves in India in the 16th Century, they found the Church in Kerala as an administratively independent community. Following the arrival of Vasco de Gama in 1498, the Portuguese came to South India and established their political power there. They brought missionaries to carry out evangelistic work in order to establish churches in communion with Rome under the Portuguese patronage. These missionaries were eager to bring the Indian Church under the Pope's control. They succeeded in their efforts in 1599 with the `Synod of Diamper'.The representatives of various parishes who attended the assembly were forced by Portuguese authorities to accept the Papal authority.

Following the synod, the Indian Church was governed by Portuguese prelates. They were generally unwilling to respect the integrity of the local church. This resulted in disaffection which led to a general revolt in 1653 known as "The Coonan Cross Oath". This demanded administrative autonomy for the local church. Since it had no bishop, it faced serious difficulties.

It appealed to several eastern Christian churches for help. The Antiochene Syrian Patriarch responded and sent metropolitan Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem to India in 1665. He confirmed Marthoma I as the bishop and worked together with him to organize the Church.

Following the Portuguese colonization of several coastal regions of India, Christians in Malabar were resolutely complied to ally with the Roman Catholic Church. Beginning in the 17th century, ecclesiastically conservative groups began to seek leadership from the Syrian Orthodox Church.

The modern history of the Church of the East in India dates to the decades after 1814 when leading Christians in Thrissur, failing in their own attempt to gain a bishop from the Syrian Orthodox Church, began to seek to have a bishop ordained by the Catholicos Patriarch of the Church of the East in Qochanis. The priest Anthony Thondonatta was consecrated bishop as Mar Abdisho in 1862 in Qochanis, though he did not begin functioning as Metropolitan in India until 1882. Their publishing arm, Mar Narsai Press, prints several liturgcal books used throughout the Church of the East (often considered "Nestorian") and now known as Assyrian Church of the East.

The present Metropolitan, Mar Aprem Mooken (ordained in 1968), is headquartered in Trichur and is a noted author. Marth Mariyam Cathedral 10°31′6″N 76°13′2″E / 10.51833°N 76.21722°E is the seat of the Metropolitan.

Timeline: St. Thomas Christian divisions

Modern history

In 1796 AD. the Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of Kingdom of Cochin (now part of Kerala) brought 52 Christian families to Thrissur with a view to develop Trichur as a center of trade and commerce. The Mart Mariam Big Church was constructed in 1814 AD for the worship of those Christian families.

This Church is under the Catholicos Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, H.H. Mar Dinkha IV. His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV was born in Northern Iraq on 15 September 1935. He became bishop in Teheran, Iran on 11 February 1962. He was consecrated Catholicos Patriarch on 17 October 1976. In the denomination as a whole, there are four archbishops (Lebanon, India, Iraq and Australia), and seven bishops under the Catholicos Patriarch.

See also


  1. History of Christianity. Vol.1. By Kenneth Scott Latourette, page 80
  2. http://www.churchoftheeastindia.org/index.html

External links


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaldean_Syrian_Church

Chest of Saint Simeon

Chest of Saint Simeon

The Silver Chest of Saint Simeon
HAZU 47 17 lipnja 2008.jpg
A replica of the chest as seen in the
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Under protection of UNESCO
Francesco di Antonio da Sesto
Zadar, Dalmatia
Repoussé Silverwork & Gilding
1.92 m x 62.5 cm x 1.27 m
Trg Šime Budinica, Zadar
Open for public viewing every year on 8 Oct.

The Chest of Saint Simeon (Croatian:Srebrna raka sv. Šime) is a rectangular silvery wooden sarcophagus located over the main altar in the Church of Saint Simeon in Zadar, Croatia. The chest, considered a masterpiece of medieval art and also a unique monument of the goldsmith's craft of the age, is one of the most interesting works in gold in Europe now under the protection of UNESCO. The top of the chest containing the mumified body of the silver-crowned bearded saint enclosed behind a layer of transparent glass is elevated above the main altar and displayed to the public, as well as its interior full of precious gifts given in their majority by Queen Elizabeth of Bosnia, every year on 8 October, at 8:30 a.m.

The cult of St. Simeon, the story of how the queen stole the finger of today Zadar's patron saint, or gonfaloniero as they call it, and the donation of an artistically magnificent shrine to atone for stealing the saint's finger surely illustrates not only the political aspect orchestrated by the Angevins amid the people's belief in the authenticity of Zadar's body over the one kept in Venice, but also the high level of development and quality in goldsmithing during the second half of that fourteenth century feudal society.


The legend of the chest

Eastern Roman emperors who were seated in Constantinople in the sixth century were not only expanding their collection of valuable works of art, but also relics of saints in order to be able to stand side by side with Rome's. So, between 565 and 568 AD the sarcophagus where the remains of St. Simeon were being kept was moved from Syria to Constantinople, where it stayed until the year 1203 when it was then shipped to Venice.

According to a quaint legend, the tradition of the worship of St. Simeon began after the arrival of a Venetian merchant in Zadar who was translating the relics of the saint in a stone sarcophagus when his ship was caught in a storm in the surroundings of Zadar, on the Dalmatian coast. While the city repaired his ship, he secretly buried the sarcophagus in a cemetery nearby so as to keep it safe from any danger and soon after that he got very ill. He sought refuge at an inn at the bottom of Zadar's harbour, where monks began to treat him. Seeing that his medical condition had worsened, they took all of his documents and found an inscription hanging around his neck reporting the miraculous powers of the saint. Oddly enough, that same night, three rectors appeared to them in a dream and warned each one individually that the remains of the holy saint were really buried in that said cemetery. Early in the following morning, as they walked to the site where they expect ed to find that stone sarcophagus, they told one another about their vision and so realised that they all had shared the same dream. They got to the grave where the chest had been hidden and dug it out of the ground, unaware of the real powers of its content. Shortly after that, gossips of the about this story reported by the monks and miracles performed in the name of the saint began to spread around the region inciting to the locals to refuse to let his body leave Zadar.

When the remains of St. Simeon first came to Zadar they were deposed in the cemetery of a suburban monastery (Church of the Virgin - Velika Gospa), which later became associated with the city's pilgrims hospice, until they were transfered to the sacristy of the female monastery of St. Mary Major, where they remained until its demolition to make room for the construction of the city walls in 1570. On 16 May 1632 they were transfered once more amid public rejoicing to a church consacrated to St. Stephen, the Martyr, and which subsequently came to be known as the Sanctuary of Saint Simeon the Righteous, the prophet of the Nunc Dimittis. Since then St. Simeon, one of the four patrons of Zadar, has been revered in the city.

The theft of the finger

In 1371 Elizabeta (Jelena), daughter of Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia and wife of one of the most powerful European rulers of his time, the Croatian-Hungarian King Ludvig I of Anjou, visited the city of Zadar. During a religious mass, she furtively cracked off a piece of St. Simeon's finger and hid it in the breast of her dress where it immediately began to decompose, a process which miraculously reverted itself when she returned the piece to the saint's hand. Confused by the appearing wound on her bosom and without being able to continue up to the point where she could safely exit from the church, most probably because of the maggots that infested the broken piece, she ran blindly through the aisle of the church only to find out that she would soon be morally forced to restore the piece back to its original place under the accusatory and inquisitive glances exchanged by the many noblemen present at the mass who formed a tight circle around her.

When Elizabeta finally left the church she promised to honour the saint by presenting the church with a gift ornated in gold that she later came to commission to the millanese goldsmith Francesco di Antonio da Sesto (Francis of Milan), who was asked to created a paper model with drawings of all the details to be discussed and approved by the queen's representatives so that their legibility and presentation might be in accordance with the royal expectations and deep interest in the making of such precious shrine. The intricate carvings were dexterously executed between 1377 and 1380 and was assisted by Andrija Markov from Zagreb, Petar Blažev from Reča, Stejpan Pribičev and Mihovil Damjanov.

Recent events

In 2007 the Archbishop of Zadar and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem agreed that the Archdiocese would provide a piece of the body of the saint to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem to be venerated in the Church of the Katamon Monastery of St. Simeon. Arrangements were made with the Congregation of Divine Worship and Cult of Saints in Rome and the small silver reliquiary, constaining a particle measuring 5 x 2.5 cm and bearing the Latin inscription: "Ex corporis Sancti Simeoni Iusti Zadar 7. octobris 2010", was solemnly handed over to the representatives of the Orthodox Church during the celebration of Vespers in the eastern part of the historic quarters of Zadar.

Description of the chest


The rectangular silver chest of Saint Simeon, standing 2.3 m above the ground on the main altar of the church of the same name, measures 1.92 m long by 62.5 cm wide and, including the 56 cm high saddle-shaped lid, 1.27 m high. The front side of the lid is dominated by the carved reclining figure of the saint dressed in a gown and cloak richly ornamented with plant motifs made by punching fastened on his breast by a clasp. The front panel, which unfolds by means of hinges located on the bottom displaying the saint's laid-down figure, measures 66.5 cm high. It is raised by the outstretched arms of four bronze angels forged from seventeenth century Turkish cannons that were seized in the waters of Zadar in 1648. Covered inside and outside with a thin lamina of 240 kg of pure silver and also a considerable quantity of gold, it shows intricate details carved on the cedar wood used to give shape to the chest. All free surface of the chest is filled in with more or less standard vine, leaves and winding rosettes of sinuate leaves ornamentations decorated with gold.

Relief compositions

The front part of the chest displays enhanced relief compositions depicting scenes from the saint's early years as a preacher, death and ascention into heaven on the back of a virgin, as well as biblical and historical events of his time. The inside part contains a relief made by goldsmith Stejpan Martinič of Zadar representing the patron saints of the city in the background. The inside of the lid is magnificently illustrated with three miracles attributed to the saint. His holy monk-like figure and two sets of the arms of Anjou also appear in high relief on both the triangle areas of the lid. They are both richly decorated in the same manner together with the shield of Hungarian bars and the characteristic Angevin fleur-de-lis, a cloak and a helmet with a crown. Above the crowns rises an ostrich with outspread wings and a horseshoe in its beak. Around the coat of arms there are reliefs of acanthus leaves, and beside them the initials of the king: L.R. (Latin: Lodovicus Rex).

The Latin inscription on the central panel on the back of the chest, which corresponds to the main composition on the front panel, bears the goldsmith's signature with Ludvig's coat of arms in the corners of the richly worked vine tracery that complements the relief. It is divided in two parts, being the larger with the main inscription in Gothic capital letters beaten in high relief: "SYMEON: HI.C.IVSTVS.YEXVM.DE.VIRGINE.NATVM.VLNIS: QVI.TENVITHAC.ARCHA. PACE.QVIESCIT.HVNGARIE.REGINA.POTENS: ILLVSTRIS: ED.ALTA: ELYZABET.IUNIOR:QVAM.VOTO:CONTVLIT. ALMO.ANNO.MILLENO: TRECENO: OCTVAGENO." Below, angraved in stylized minuscule letters, appears the goldsmith's signature: "hoc.opus.fecit: franciscus.d.mediolano."

Known in medieval Latin hexameters, the translation of the inscription reads as follows: "Simeon the Righteous, holding Jesus, born of a virgin, in his arms, rests in peace in this chest, commissioned by the Queen of Hungary, mighty, glorious and majestic Elizabeta the Younger, in the year 1380. This is the work of Francis of Milan".

Main scenes

The scenes are separated by columns surmounted by small heads of angels sculpted during the two-year restoration process started in 1630. The work was conducted by the goldsmiths Constantino Piazzalonga of Venice and Benedetto Libani of Zadar, who reduced the length of the chest by four and the width by three fingers.

Note: The visual narrative of The Theft of the Finger and the two scenes located on the back of the chest have recently been considered to be all connected. Such conclusion may differ from another line of thoughts who point to a longer narrative based on a chronological sequence of events, which begins with the scene The Boat in the Storm, shifts from visual to written discourse in the reading of the Latin inscription on the back panel, and ends in the complementary scene The Death of Ban Kotromanič.

Additional informations


  1. The embroidering apron in which St. Simeon is dressed was a gift of the Serbian Despot Djordje Brankovič.
  2. According to some historians, the saint's body was translated from Jerusalem to Constantinople in the second half of the 6th century while others state that it was brought to Constantinople from Syria. The mentioning of the Dubrovnik Cathedral as his first resting place in Dalmatia after his transfer from Palestine also appears in a verse-chronicle of the Ragusan poet Miletius from 1159.
  3. The surviving Pilgrim’s Book, written by Daniel and Anthony of Novgorod, monk and archbishop of Novgorod, during their visit to Constantinople in 1200, testifies that the relics of the saint were still in Istanbul at the time. Legends relate that his body arrived in Zadar in 1203, 1213, 1243 or 1273 respectively, but despite the many dates and places the theory that the Eastern emperor's nephew Alexius Angelus conspired with Venetians and Frankish crusaders to plounder the city of Zadar on their way to Constantinople in 1201 (Treaty of Venice) may sound quite possible to some researchers once the purpose of the plan was to defray part of the transporting cost of the expedition which the crusaders were unable to pay to Venice. In December 1202 Alexius IV promised aid and money in return for restoration to his throne, so like this the Treaty of Zara was signed in January 1203 and the Fourth Crusade proceeded against Christian Constantinople, despite protests from the Pope because the act represented a brutal assault on a Catholic town by Catholic troops. There is a mosaic in the Basilica of San Giovanni Batista in Ravenna, Italy, that portrays the invasion of Zadar by the crusaders (1208).
  4. This is the place where today stands the parish church of St. John.
  5. Jelič, however, reported that this event happened during the king's entrance in Zadar and not in 1371.
  6. Although Francis of Milan could have taken on assistants because of the urgency of the job, it is known today from documents that he only took on only one apprentice and one trained goldsmith who was engaged at the end of the work.
  7. The commission of the chest by Elizabeta is recorded in a document dated 5 July 1377 in Zadar. It reveals the techniques used in the making of the chest and also atests that the donation of the 240 kg of silver used to decorate the surface of the chest came from Elizabeta herself. It was most probably given to Zadar because the Royal couple needed the support of its people. Even being the commissioning of reliquary shrines a typical way by which medieval queens attempted to secure their political recognition, it was the period when the city frequently belonged to the Venetian Empire and the territory of the Croatian-Hungarian king. Thus Ludvig I, engaged in keeping Zadar away from the clutches of Venice, wanted a strong community to form a strong bond between the south Italian possessions and the Polish and Croatian-Hungarian state. For this reason St. Simeon was the best choice for being the most popular saint in Zadar. But the Angevin chapter of Zadar's history, which began in 1350, ended in 1409 when Ladislas of Naples, the descendant of Elizabeth of Hungary, sold Zadar and its duchy to the Venetian Republic.
  8. The same coat of arms in the shape of a buckle can be found in the treasury of Aachen Cathedral once Ludvig I was the grandson of Karl Martel, the son of Karl II King of Naples.
  9. The art historian Rudolf Eitelberger sometime wrote in his 1861 work Die mittelalterlieben Kunstdenkenmale Dalmatiens that the chest had been restored during the Renaissance.
  10. From a historical point of view, this is the most interesting piece of work as it interprets an almost contemporary event to the making of the chest. The returning of the saint's body to the place from which the Venetians had probably removed him during their ten-year long rule, although this information is not confirmed in historical sources.
  11. The central relief on the front of the chest, is believed to be a work based on a fresco by Giotto, in the Scrovegni Chapel (Cappella dell'Arena) in Padua, or it might be a work based on another of Giotto's smaller paintings today in the Gardner Museum in Boston. This way Francis of Milan introduced the work of this grand master to Dalmatia.
  12. Writers agree that this composition depicts the finding of St. Simeon's body in a cemetery of a Zadar suburban monastery.
  13. This is an artistically important motif for also being reminiscent of Giovanni di Balduccio's stone relief on the sarcophagus of St. Eustorgius in Milan. Older writers have the opinion that this scene is a despiction of the boat that brought the saint's relics to Zadar and that it tells the legend of Margaret of Durazzo, wife of Duke Charles of Durazzo, Ludvig's relative, who took part of the saint's body and tried to leave Naples, but the boats which were to take them and their suite could not sail out of the harbour.
  14. Older writers say that this scene shows Elizabeta stealing one of St. Simeon's fingers in order to have a male heir. St. Simeon was frequently invoked for couples wishing to have a boy and the belief of stealing the finger of a saint dates at least from the time of the hagiographer Gregory of Tours. Ancient Romans consacrated every joint of the fingers of both hands to a saint and St. Simeon figures as the first joint of the middle finger of the left hand.
  15. As the Queen's father was a Bosnian Ban, and Bosnian rulers were often accused of the Bogumil heresy, writers say that this scene is meant to show that he was a good Catholic and that the two boys represent the Ban's nephews Tvrtko and Vuk, who came to Zadar to entreat the saint to protect their uncle. Other writers suggest that both boys personify only the eldest of the two, who was crowned King of Bosnia and Serbia in October 1377.
  16. Catherine (1370-1378) was seven years old, Mary (1371-1395) six and Jadwiga (1373-1399) almost four at the time of the commissioning of the chest, so this relief must have been finished when Elizabeta's eldest daughter was still alive.
  17. These figures showing the same boy were not connected in literature and therefore were first wrongly described as two miracles instead of only one, however all three characters bear the same features, hair and attire in this composition.
  18. This scene has been interpreted as the preaching of the priest who attacked some religious teaching concerning the Virgin, so St. Simeon appeared in his dream with a sword and threatened him, so steering him to the right path of life.
  19. According with some writers, this composition shows either some false oath or a sacrilege commited by that man.
  20. The content of this relief has not been well explained. The figure kneeling by the post seems to represent the goldsmith working in the church who appears surprised by the arrival of the young man accompanied by the woman.
  21. This composition is considered by some writers to also represent the punishment of a prejurer whose sin was to become a madman for the stealing of the saint's leg, which miraculously grew together with the body again after being sent back to Zadar.



Further reading


Relief Compositions Depicted on the Chest of Saint Simeon

See also

External links

Coordinates: 44°6′48.2″N 15°13′42.7″E / 44.113389°N 15.228528°E

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chest_of_Saint_Simeon

Act As If (band)

Act As If (band)

Act As If
Background information
Origin Los Angeles, California, United States
Genres Indie rock, Indie pop
Years active 2006-present
Labels Unsigned
Website www.actasifmusic.com
Peter Verdell
Diego De La Rosa
Chad Hines
Jessica Burgan

Act As If is an American Indie rock quartet from Los Angeles, California led by singer/songwriter Peter Verdell.


Act As If was formed in 2006 by lead singer Peter Verdell. After quitting his job in A&R at Drive Thru Records, Verdell went on tour drumming for Andrew Ripp. He wrote, produced and self-released his debut limited edition EP More Birds With Fewer Stones in 2009. Shortly thereafter, Verdell began working on There's A Light, his first full length record, which was released on iTunes in 2010. Mixed by Nick Baumhardt (Thousand Foot Krutch The Class of 98), and mastered by Troy Glessner (Death Cab for Cutie, Pedro the Lion), the record was written and produced by Verdell, who also performed all drums, guitars, piano, synths and vocals.

In an interview with Anti Music, Verdell discusses the meaning behind the music: "I think the general message (and maybe the general theme of our album), is that when things seem to be falling apart, or someone we love doesn't love us back—we can still find light, or joy, or hope—if we choose to look for it."

Music Without Labels says: "There’s a longing that haunts the record and ties it together sonically and emotionally, but the tracks never blur. The group even sticks the landing with “Hit the Ground,” which sports a hook that comes in second only to the album’s opener 'There’s a Light.'"

There's A Light was deemed Fuseworthy by Fuse TV, and Absolutepunk.net has featured tracks from the album on their site.

Songs from There's A Light have been placed on episodes of MTV's The Buried Life, and Jersey Shore.


Act As If has played with artists including The Daylights, Barcelona, and Stacy Clark.



External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_As_If_(band)

Carbon–boron bond

Organoboron chemistry

Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes. Organoboron chemistry or organoborane chemistry is the chemistry of these compounds. Organoboron compounds are important reagents in organic chemistry enabling many chemical transformations, the most important one called hydroboration.


The C-B bond has low polarity (the difference in electronegativity 2.55 for carbon and 2.04 for boron) and therefore alkyl boron compounds are in general stable though easily oxidized. Vinyl groups and aryl groups donate electrons and make boron less electrophilic and the C-B bond gains some double bond character. Like the parent borane, diborane, organoboranes are classified in organic chemistry as strong electrophiles because boron is unable to gain a full octet of electrons. Unlike diborane however, organoboranes do not form dimers.

Other boranes (of academic interest) are carboranes, cluster compounds of carbon and boron and borabenzene, the boron equivalent of benzene.

Organoboranes with carbon replaced by oxygen are R2BOR, boronic esters RB(OR)2 and borates B(OR)3 such as trimethylborate. In organometallic chemistry compounds with metal to boron bonds are called boryls (M–BR2) or borylenes (M–B(R)–M).


From Grignards

Simple organoboranes such as triethylborane or tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron can be prepared from trifluoroborane (as the ether complex) and the ethyl or pentafluorophenyl Grignard reagent.

From alkenes

Boranes react rapidly to alkenes in a process called hydroboration. This concept was discovered by Dr. Herbert Charles Brown at Purdue University, work for which he eventually received the Nobel Prize (jointly with Georg Wittig for his discovery of the Wittig reaction). Although diborane as a pure compound is a dimer, BH3 forms 1:1 complexes with basic solvents, for instance THF. In an ordinary electrophilic addition reaction of HX (X = Cl, Br, I, etc.) the Markovnikov's rule, which states that the lest electronegative atom, usually hydrogen adds to the least substituted carbon of the double bond, this determines regioselectivity. With boranes the mode of action is the same, the hydrogen adds to the most-substituted carbon because boron is least electronegative than hydrogen. The reason is that boron is less electronegative than hydrogen. When a positive charge develops in the alkene on the most substituted carbon atom, that is where the partially negatively charged hydrogen atom adds, leaving the least substituted carbon atom for the boron atom. The so called anti-Markovnikov addition because when the boron is replaced with a hydroxyl group the overall reaction is addition of water over the double bond in what appears to be an anti.Makovnikov addition.

This is most pronounced when the boron compound has very bulky substituents. One organoboron reagent that is often employed in synthesis is 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane or 9-BBN which is generated from the reaction of cyclooctadiene and diborane . Hydroborations take place stereospecifically in a syn mode, that is on the same face of the alkene. In this concerted reaction the transition state is represented as a square with the corners occupied by carbon, carbon, hydrogen and boron with maximum overlap between the two olefin p-orbitals and the empty boron orbital.



In organic synthesis the hydroboration reaction is taken further to generate other functional groups in the place of the boron group. The Hydroboration-oxidation reaction offers a route to alcohols by oxidation of the borane with hydrogen peroxide or to the carbonyl group with the stronger oxidizing agent chromium oxide.


A second group of reactions that organoboron compounds are involved in create new carbon carbon bonds. Carbon monoxide is found to react very easily with a trialkylborane. What follows is a 1,2-rearrangement when an alkyl substituent on the anionic boron migrates to the adjacent electrophilic carbon of the carbonyl group. The carbonyl group can then be reduced to a hydroxyl group.


Asymmetric allylboration demonstrates another useful application of organoboranes in carbon–carbon bond formation. In this example from Nicolaou's synthesis of the epothilones, asymmetric allylboration (using an allylborane derived from chiral alpha-pinene) is used in conjunction with TBS protection and ozonolysis. Overall, this provides a two-carbon homologation sequence that delivers the required acetogenin sequence.



Organoboron compounds also lend themselves to transmetalation reactions with organopalladium compounds. This reaction type is exemplified in the Suzuki reaction.

As reducing agent

Borane hydrides such as 9-BBN and L-selectride (lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride) are reducing agents. An example of an asymmetric catalyst for carbonyl reductions is the CBS catalyst. This catalyst is also based on boron, the purpose of which is coordination to the carbonyl oxygen atom.


Trialkylboranes, BR3, can be oxidized to the corresponding borates, B(OR)3. One method for the determination of the amount of C-B bonds in a compound is by oxidation of R3B with trimethylamine oxide (Me3NO) to B(OR)3. The trimethylamine (Me3N) formed can then be titrated.

Boronic acids RB(OH)2 react with potassium bifluoride K[HF2] to form trifluoroborate salts K[RBF3] which are precursors to nucleophilic alkyl and aryl boron difluorides, ArBF2. The salts are more stable than the boronic acids themselves and used for instance in alkylation of certain aldehydes:

Alkyl trifluoroborates Batey 2002


Nucleophilic anionic boryl compounds have long been elusive but a 2006 study described a boryllithium compound which reacts as a nucleophile :


This is remarkable because in other period 2 elements lithium salts are common e.g. lithium fluoride, lithium hydroxide lithium amide and methyllithium. Reaction of base with a borohydride R2BH does not result in deprotonation to the boryl anion R2B but to formation of the boryl anion R2BH(base) because only this reaction path gives a complete octet . Instead the boryl compound is prepared by reductive heterolysis of a boron-bromide bond by lithium metal. The new boryl lithium compound is very similar to and isoelectronic with N-heterocyclic carbenes. It is designed to benefit from aromatic stabilization (6-electron system counting the nitrogen lone pairs and an empty boron p-orbital, see structure A) and from kinetic stabilization from the bulky 2,6-diisopropylphenyl groups. X-ray diffraction confirms sp2 hybridization at boron and its nucleophilic addition reaction with benzaldehyde gives further proof of the proposed structure.


Alkylideneboranes of the type RB=CRR with a boron – carbon double bond are rarely encountered. An example is borabenzene. The parent compound is HB=CH2 which can be detected at low temperatures. A fairly stable derivative is CH3B=C(SiMe3)2 but is prone to .


Chemical compounds with boron to boron double bonds are rare. In 2007 the first neutral diborene (RHB=BHR) was presented . Each boron atom has a proton attached to it and each boron atom is coordinated to a so-called NHC carbene.

Diborene synthesis Wang 2007


The cyclic compound borole, a structural analog of pyrrole, has not been isolated, but substituted derivatives known as boroles are known.

Other uses

TEB – Triethylborane was used to ignite the JP-7 fuel of the Pratt / Whitney J-58 ramjet engines powering the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.


See also


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organoboron_chemistry


John III of Albret

John III of Navarre

John III
King of Navarre
with Catherine
Reign 1484–14 June 1516
Predecessor Catherine
Successor Catherine
Spouse Catherine, Queen of Navarre
Henry II of Navarre
Isabella, Viscountess of Rohan
House House of Albret
Father Alain I of Albret
Mother Frances of Châtillon-Limoges
Born 1469
Died 14 June 1516

John III (1469 – 14 June 1516), also known as Jean d'Albret, was jure uxoris, King consort of the Queen regnant Catherine of Navarre.

He was a son of Alain I of Albret, Lord of Albret, and his wife, Frances of Châtillon-Limoges.

King of Navarre

He became King of Navarre and Count of Foix by virtue of his 1484 marriage to Queen Catherine (1470-1517), successor of her brother Francis Phoebus in 1483.

In 1512, John III was defeated by Ferdinand II of Aragon, whose second wife was Germaine de Foix (1490-1538), a cousin of Queen Catherine. Navarre south of the Pyrenees was annexed by the victorious Ferdinand and remained a domain of the Kings of Spain, who also bore the title of Kings of Navarre, until the 1833 territorial division of Spain, when it was completely integrated into Spain.

Lower Navarre remained with John and his successors as Kings of Navarre, increasingly under French influence. After King Henry III of Navarre had mounted the French throne in 1589, he and his successors styled themselves Kings of France and Navarre until the French Revolution merged Lower Navarre with France.


He and Queen Catherine of Navarre were parents to thirteen children:



  • The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.13, New York:1910.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_III_of_Navarre

Herbert John Green

Herbert John Green

Herbert John Green was an English architect responsible for the renovation of a large number of churches in Norfolk; he was diocesan surveyor for the Anglican Diocese of Norwich 1881 to 1898.



Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_John_Green

John Hutchyns Tyndall

John Tyndall (politician)

John Tyndall

Chairman of the
British National Party
In office
1982 – September 1999
Deputy Richard Edmonds
Succeeded by Nick Griffin

Chairman of the National Front
In office
Preceded by John Kingsley Read
Succeeded by Andrew Brons
In office
Preceded by John O'Brien
Succeeded by John Kingsley Read

Born July 14, 1934
Exeter, Devon, England
Died July 19, 2005 aoremovetag(aged 71)
Hove, East Sussex
Political party League of Empire Loyalists 1954-1957,
National Labour Party
British National Party (1960) 1960-1962,
National Socialist Movement 1962-1964,
Greater Britain Movement 1964-1967,
National Front
New National Front
British National Party
Spouse(s) Valerie Tyndall
Children 1 Girl

John Hutchyns Tyndall (14 July 1934 – 19 July 2005) was a British politician who was involved in a number of fascist movements in Britain, best known for leading the National Front in the 1970s and founding the contemporary British National Party (BNP) in 1982.

Perhaps the most prominent figure in British nationalism in the second-half of the twentieth century, his legacy has been highly controversial among opponents as well as sections of the modern BNP under his successor Nick Griffin. Throughout his career he was vehemently anti-Semitic as well as a firm believer in white racial superiority. His opponents as well as those of his associated movements such as the National Front and the BNP have frequently pointed to his involvement with the openly neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement and Spearhead as deputy leader under Colin Jordan in the early 1960s.

Early life

John Tyndall was born in Exeter in Devon, England, on July 14, 1934. The son of the warden of St George's House, a YMCA hostel at Southwark, he grew up in London. He was related to the early English translator of the Bible, William Tyndale, his ancestors having moved to County Waterford in Ireland in the 16th century.

Political career

Early politics

Tyndall was first politically active in the League of Empire Loyalists, a right-wing pressure group, led by A. K. Chesterton. In 1957, feeling that the League was not sufficiently active, he and John Bean left to form the National Labour Party. The Labour Party prevented the use of this name, and in 1960 it merged with the White Defence League of Colin Jordan to form the old British National Party (BNP) which was led by John Bean. At rallies Tyndall argued "What we need is a few machine guns" and "Hitler was right".

Tyndall left the original British National Party with Colin Jordan in 1962, when the National Socialist Movement was formed; Tyndall was Jordan's deputy. Spearhead was setup as the NSM's private army, based on the SA of Nazi Germany. In 1962, the police prosecuted Jordan, Tyndall, Martin Webster and Denis Pirie for paramilitary organising. He was imprisoned for several months after being found guilty on this charge.

In 1963, Tyndall fell out with Jordan over Françoise Dior, a wealthy Frenchwoman who, although she was originally engaged to Tyndall, hastily married Jordan, who had just been released from prison before Tyndall, to avoid being expelled from Britain as an undesirable alien. This act provoked a long-running schism between the two former allies, although in 2009 - at which point both were deceased - Tyndall's widow Valerie was reported to have claimed that Tyndall and Jordan were eventually reconciled.

In 1964, Tyndall set up his personal magazine, using the name Spearhead, which ran until his death. His political thoughts and comments, as well as those of select others - in most cases close political allies - were communicated. The magazine made up a great part of his personal revenue because, although he changed parties several times in his life, he retained the copyright over the name Spearhead. Tyndall formed the Greater Britain Movement that year, taking most of the members of the National Socialist Movement with him. Jordan was well in with the proprietor of the headquarters at 74, Princedale Road, London, W11 (the widow of Arnold Leese), so it was Tyndall who was obliged to quit the building but he retained his copy of the keys and during one of Jordan's prolonged absences, emptied the HQ of all the expensive equipment. A court of justice ruled that it was an internal affair and considering that both litigants were members of the same movement at the time in question, no theft had occurred. The Greater Britain Movement drifted from various accommodation addresses varying from an upper room in a pub named "The Silver Sword" in Petty France, London, SW1, to an address in Holborn, and finally invading the basement of the prestige address of "Westminster Chambers", which eventually became the first HQ of the National Front.

Tyndall spent much of the 1960s developing his ideological programme. He published the book The Authoritarian State in 1962, in which he claimed that liberal democracy was a Jewish tool of world domination that needed to be replaced by authoritarianism.

Later, Tyndall continued to develop his ideological programme and produced Six Principles of Nationalism (1966) which appeared to break with the neo-Nazi NSM and, instead, looked to electoral paths to government, which would be characterized by leadership, corporatism, moral regeneration, racial purity and a restored British Empire, and would be regularly ratified by referendums, bringing to mind the earlier calls of Sir Oswald Mosley who, along with his mother, Tyndall deeply respected. He would spend hours in front of a mirror perfecting Mosley's gestures. Tyndall’s new work impressed A. K. Chesterton, who at the same time was helping to reorganise the demoralised far-right.

National Front

When the National Front (NF) was formed in 1967, Tyndall pressed for the inclusion of the Greater Britain Movement. Eventually, a compromise was reached to allow individual members to join the NF, and Tyndall disbanded the Greater Britain Movement when they all had done so. Tyndall swiftly rose to the rank of Chairman when John O'Brien resigned, in which his principal responsibility was theory and political thinking.

Under Tyndall's guidance the Front grew in membership and gained many votes, peaking during the February general election of 1974. This success was not so much due to Tyndall's leadership, but was a direct result of Martin Webster's tactics of banging the drums in the streets. However Tyndall's leadership faced a number of challenges from both populists and Strasserites, beginning with a running feud with Roy Painter, then his replacement as leader by John Kingsley Read and culminating in the two groups uniting to form the National Party in 1976. After this split Tyndall was able to regain the Chair and re-establish his control in the NF. Tyndall advocated a neo-imperialist policy, leading to the formation of branches of the NF in South Africa and Australia in 1977.

For the 1979 general election, the Front put up 303 candidates: it lost each deposit everywhere. Internal recriminations saw Tyndall removed from all his positions and he opted to depart, setting up the New National Front (NNF) in 1980.

British National Party

As NNF leader, Tyndall sought to work with other groups and as a result the British National Party emerged in 1982 after he amalgamated his group with the British Democratic Party, elements of the Constitutional Movement and those members of the British Movement loyal to Ray Hill.

During his tenure as leader of the new BNP, Tyndall did little to dispel the perception that the BNP was a neo-Nazi organisation, and strongly resisted any attempts to soften the party's policies or image. Tyndall was convicted of publishing material likely to incite racial hated in 1986 and was jailed. During his time in prison, he completed the part-autobiographical part-political book The Eleventh Hour (ISBN 0-9513686-2-1), which he subsequently revised several times.

Deposed as leader

In 1999, Tyndall lost the leadership of the BNP to Nick Griffin. Afterwards he threatened, at times, to run against Griffin to regain the leadership, although he did not act on his threats. Griffin briefly expelled Tyndall, along with his two closest allies in the party Richard Edmonds and John Morse, from the BNP in 2002 for being a disruptive influence, although Tyndall was reinstated after a court case. In 2004, Tyndall joined in signing the New Orleans Protocol. The New Orleans Protocol seeks to "mainstream our cause" by reducing violence and internecine warfare, and was written by David Duke, When he signed, Tyndall made it clear that he was not acting on behalf of the BNP. For a time, he also became associated with Eddy Morrison who had split from the White Nationalist Party and organised a Spearhead Support Group to back Tyndall. However the alliance fell apart when Tyndall made it clear that he did not support Morrison's attempts to set up a new party (which eventually emerged as the Nationalist Alliance).

On December 12, 2004, Tyndall was arrested on suspicion of incitement to racial hatred towards Michael Howard's Jewish roots and towards African people, following a BBC documentary which aired in July 2004. On April 6, 2005, he was charged by police with two offences of using words or behaviour intended or likely to stir up racial hatred.

Tyndall was found dead at his home in Hove, East Sussex, on July 19, 2005, less than a week after his 71st birthday. He was due to stand trial on charges of incitement to racial hatred at Leeds Magistrates' Court just two days later (July 21, 2005).

Personal life

His wife, Valerie – whom he met while both were in the National Front in the 1970s – stood as an NF candidate in Brighton, Kemptown, in the 1979 general election, and as BNP candidate in Hackney, South & Shoreditch in the 1983 general election and at Old Bexley & Sidcup in the 1997 general election. Her father, Charles Parker, became a leading member of the BNP in its early years and provided the party with a source of funding.

Elections contested by John Tyndall

UK Parliament elections

European Parliament elections

Elections contested by Valerie Tyndall

UK Parliament elections

European Parliament elections



External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyndall_(politician)