Surgery (from the
The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist / oral and maxillofacial surgeon, or veterinarian.
Definitions of surgery
Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues.
As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a patient's tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as
Types of surgery
Surgical procedures are the commonly categorized by urgency, type of procedure, body system involved, degree of invasiveness, and special instrumentation.
Description of surgical procedure
Prior to surgery, the patient is given a
In the pre-operative holding area, the patient changes out of his or her street clothes and is asked to confirm the details of his or her surgery. A set of vital signs are recorded, a peripheral
An incision is made to access the surgical site.
Work to correct the problem in body then proceeds. This work may involve:
After completion of surgery, the patient is transferred to the
Post-operative therapy may include adjuvant treatment such as
In special populations
Older adults have widely varying physical health.
At least two prehistoric cultures had developed forms of surgery. The oldest for which there is evidence is
The oldest known surgical texts date back to ancient Egypt about 3500 years ago. Surgical operations were performed by priests, specialized in medical treatments similar to today. The procedures were documented on papyrus and were the first to describe patient case files; the
Sushruta (also spelled Susruta or Sushrutha), c.
Modern surgery developed rapidly with the scientific era.
- Before modern surgical developments, there was a very real threat that a patient would bleed to death before treatment, or during the operation.
Cauterization (fusing a wound closed with extreme heat) was successful but limited - it was destructive, painful and in the long term had very poor outcomes. Ligatures , or material used to tie off severed blood vessels, originated as early as ancient Rome , and were improved by Ambroise Paré in the 16th century. Though this method was a significant improvement over the method of cauterization, it was still dangerous until infection risk was brought under control - at the time of its discovery, the concept of infection was not fully understood. Finally, early 20th century research into blood groups allowed the first effective blood transfusions.
pain control through anesthesia was discovered by two American dental surgeons , Horace Wells (1815–1848) and William T. G. Morton . Before the advent of anesthesia , surgery was a traumatically painful procedure and surgeons were encouraged to be as swift as possible to minimize patient suffering . This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations and external growth removals. Beginning in the 1840s, surgery began to change dramatically in character with the discovery of effective and practical anaesthetic chemicals such as ether and chloroform , later pioneered in Britain by John Snow . In addition to relieving patient suffering, anaesthesia allowed more intricate operations in the internal regions of the human body. In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications.
- Unfortunately, the introduction of anesthetics encouraged more surgery, which inadvertently caused more dangerous patient post-operative infections. The concept of infection was unknown until relatively modern times. The first progress in combating infection was made in 1847 by the
Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis who noticed that medical students fresh from the dissecting room were causing excess maternal death compared to midwives. Semmelweis, despite ridicule and opposition, introduced compulsory handwashing for everyone entering the maternal wards and was rewarded with a plunge in maternal and fetal deaths, however the Royal Society in the UK still dismissed his advice. Significant progress came following the work of Louis Pasteur and his advances in microbiology , when the British surgeon Joseph Lister began experimenting with using phenol during surgery to prevent infections. Lister was able to quickly reduce infection rates, a reduction that was further helped by his subsequent introduction of the techniques of Robert Koch (such as the Steam Steriliser, which proved more successful than the carbolic acid spray that Lister had been using previously) to sterilize equipment, have rigorous hand washing and a later implementation of rubber gloves. Lister published his work as a series of articles in The Lancet (March 1867) under the title Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery . The work was groundbreaking and laid the foundations for a rapid advance in infection control that saw modern aseptic operating theatres widely used within 50 years (Lister himself went on to make further strides in antisepsis and asepsis throughout his lifetime).
Surgical specialties and sub-specialties
Some other specialties involve some forms of surgical intervention, especially
Qualifications in the UK and Ireland
- Surgery at the Open Directory Project
- Plastic Surgery
- Dr Rustom Plastic Surgery Guide - Ask Your Questions
- Dr. Cynara Coomer Prepares You for Surgery: Ask the Right Questions
- Surgery Videos from the American Medical Videos Journal
Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery