|— City —|
|Nickname(s): "The City of Dreaming Spires"|
|Motto: "Fortis est veritas" "Truth is strong"|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||South East England|
|Admin HQ||Oxford City Centre|
|- Governing body||Oxford City Council|
| - Lord Mayor |
- Deputy Lord Mayor
|Cllr Mary Clarkson (2009–2010) |
Cllr John Goddard (2009–2010)
|- Sheriff of Oxford||Cllr Elise Benjamin (2009–2010)|
| - Executive |
- Council Leader
Cllr Bob Price
|- MPs||Nicola Blackwood (C) |
Andrew Smith (L)
|- Total||17.6 sq mi (45.59 km)|
|Population (2008 est.)|
|- Total||153,900 (Ranked 117th of 326)|
|- Density||8,469.3/sq mi (3,270/km)|
| - Ethnicity |
|73.0% White British |
9.1% Other White
5.7% South Asian
2.7% Mixed Race
1.8% White Irish
|Time zone||GMT (UTC0)|
|- Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
|OS grid reference||SP513061|
Buildings in Oxford demonstrate an example of every
Oxford was first settled in
Oxford was heavily damaged during the
In 1191, a city charter stated in
Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King
The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. As the University took shape, friction between the hundreds of students living where and how they pleased led to a decree that all undergraduates would have to reside in approved halls. Of the hundreds of
In 1790, the
By the early 20th century, Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. Also during that decade, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as
The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from south Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notable cosmopolitan character, especially in the
On 6 May 1954,
Oxford's second university,
Oxford has a
The average conditions below are from the Radcliffe Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Britain. These records are continuous from January, 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767.
The Oxford suburb of Cowley has a long history of carmaking and now produces the
There is a long history of
The development of Oxford's railway links after the 1840's and the rapid expansion of Oxford supported expansion of the brewing trade in Oxford. As well as expanding the market for Oxford's brewers, railways enabled brewers further from the city to compete for a share of its market. By 1874 there were nine breweries in Oxford and 13 brewers' agents in Oxford shipping beer in from elsewhere. The nine breweries were: Flowers & Co in
The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in Paradise Street, and in 1795 was acquired by William Hall. The brewery became known as Hall's Oxford Brewery, which acquired other local breweries. Hall's Brewery was acquired by
Morrell's, the Oxford based
Outside the City Centre:
Theatres and cinemas
Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and the
The University of Oxford
The city centre
As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009), Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres, and an ice rink. The historic buildings make this location a popular target for film and TV crews.
The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on
There are two small shopping centres in the city centre: The Clarendon Centre and The Westgate Centre. The Westgate Centre is named for the original West Gate in the city wall, and is located at the west end of Queen Street. It is quite small and contains a number of chain stores and a supermarket. The Westgate Shopping Centre is to undergo a large and controversial refurbishment; the plans involve tripling the size of the centre to 750,000 sq ft (70,000 m), a new 1,335 space underground car park and 90 new shops and bars, including a 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m)
Parks and nature walks
Oxford is a very green city, with several parks and nature walks within the ring road, as well as several sites just outside the ring road. In total, 28 Nature Reserves exist within or just outside of Oxford ring road, including:
The Westgate redevelopment is just part of a wider scheme proposed by the city council. This scheme includes a total redesign of the centre of Oxford to "pedestrianise" the city. The scheme, entitled Transform Oxford, is only a blueprint for public consultation at this stage, but county council officials are confident it will go ahead.
One of the key elements is the pedestrianisation of
In 2011, highways engineers plan to remodel the
In addition to the larger airports in the region, Oxford is served by nearby
Oxford has 5
There are also bus services to the
In 1844, the
There were also routes to the north and west. The line to
Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844, but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north; it was replaced by the
River and canal
Oxford was historically an important port on the River Thames; the
Commercial traffic has given way to recreational use of the river and canal. Oxford was the original base of
The main roads that lead out of Oxford are:
The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974 (the first section through
Oxford is home to wide range of schools many of which receive pupils from around the world. Three are University choral foundations, established to educate the boy choristers of the chapel choirs, and have kept the tradition of single sex education. Examination results in state-run Oxford schools are consistently below the national average and regional average. However, results in the city are improving with 44% of pupils gaining 5 grades A*-C in 2006.
As well as the
Popular local papers include
Recently (2003) DIY grassroots non-corporate media has begun to spread. Independent and community newspapers include the Jericho Echo and Oxford Prospect.
Literature and film
Well-known Oxford-based authors include:
Oxford appears in the following works:
Oxford, and its surrounding towns and villages, have produced many successful bands and musicians. The most notable Oxford act is
There are several field hockey clubs based in Oxford. City of Oxford HC and Rover Oxford HC, two separate clubs, both play their home games on the pitch at Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus. Oxford Hawks play at Banbury Road North, by Cutteslow Park to the north of the city.
- Aston, Michael; Bond, James (1976). The Landscape of Towns. Archaeology in the Field Series. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0 460 04194 0.
- Cooke, B.W.C., ed (January 1960). "The Why and the Wherefore: Distances from London to Oxford". The Railway Magazine (Westminster: Tothill Press) 106 (705).
- Dale, Lawrence (1944). Towards a Plan for Oxford City. London: Faber and Faber.
- MacDermot, E.T. (1927). History of the Great Western Railway, vol. I: 1833-1863. Paddington: Great Western Railway.
- MacDermot, E.T. (1931). History of the Great Western Railway, vol. II: 1863-1921. Paddington: Great Western Railway.
- Mitchell, Vic; Smith, Keith (July 2005). Oxford to Bletchley. Country Railway Routes. Middleton Press. ISBN 1904474578.
- Sager, Peter (2005). Oxford & Cambridge: An Uncommon History. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500512493.
- Saint, Andrew (1970). "Three Oxford Architects". Oxonensia (Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society) XXXV. http://www.oahs.org.uk/oxo/vol%2035/Saint.doc.
- Sharp, Thomas (1948). Oxford Replanned. London: The Architectural Press.
- Tyack, Geoffrey (1998). Oxford An Architectural Guide. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-817423-3.
- Simpson, Bill (1997). A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire. Part 1: The North. Banbury and Witney: Lamplight. ISBN 1899246029.
- Simpson, Bill (2001). A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire. Part 2: The South. Banbury and Witney: Lamplight. ISBN 1899246061.
- Further reading
- History, learning, beauty reign over Oxford, Anne Gordon, The Boston Globe, June 22, 2008
- Attlee, James (2007). Isolarion: A Different Oxford Journey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-03093-7.
- Curl, James Stevens (1977). The Erosion of Oxford. Oxford Illustrated Press Ltd. ISBN 0-902280-40-6.
- Morris, Jan (2001). Oxford. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-19-280136-4.
- Oxford - 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
- Oxford City Council official website
- Oxford From Above BBC program
- Oxford travel guide from Wikitravel
- Oxford at the Open Directory Project
Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford